Being a high efficient technique for metal surface treatment , centrifugal grinding is widely applied in the field of polishing and burring for small-sized asymmetric parts. During the process of centrifugal grinding, the dynamic characteristics of the abrasive flow, which is determined by the planetary driver ratio of the instrument, has a profound impact on the quality and producing efficiency of the workpiece. Targeting on the massive abrasive, this paper investigates experimentally theinfluence of the planetary driver ratio of the instrument to the producing quality and efficiency. On one hand, a high-speed photograph is employed to record the movement of the abrasive flow in the processing of centrifugal grinding. The dynamic characteristics of the abrasive flow have been investigated for different planetary driver ratios. By qualitative analyzing the high-speed photographing results, the perceptual knowledge of the characteristics and the kinematic rules of the abrasive flow have been obtained. On the other hand, the surface roughness data at different planetary gear ratio and polishing time have been measured. The influence of planetary gear ratio on producing process have been illustrated by plotting the roughness-time curve combined with the high-speed photograph so as to provide a scientific basis for optimizing the parameters of design and technology.