Finite Element Analysis on the Stress and Fracture in the Second Metatarsal
Footwear has direct impact on the stress level in the metatarsal bones of human feet. In particular, stress fractures at the neck of the second metatarsal are the most common injuries. A finite element analysis was carried out to study the load and stress level in the second metatarsal of a 50-kg female wearing flat and high-heel shoes. It found that the bending of metatarsal due to the flat-footed posture increases the chance of fracture, and the stiletto (high-heeled) posture leads to large compressive stress.
Hong-Yuan Liu, Xiaozhi Hu and Mark Hoffman
B. Wang and G. X. Lu, "Finite Element Analysis on the Stress and Fracture in the Second Metatarsal", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 312, pp. 275-280, 2006