Experimental Mechanics in Nano and Biotechnology

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Authors: Jong Hyun Baek, Young Pyo Kim, Woo Sik Kim, Chang Sung Seok
Abstract: Pipelines for natural gas transmission may be subjected to plastic deformation by the outside force such as ground subsidence, ground liquefaction, cold bending and mechanical damage. Plastic deformation affects the tensile properties and fracture toughness. Tensile test, Crack tip opening displacement test and Charpy impact test were conducted on an API 5L X65 pipe to investigate the mechanical properties of pipeline subjected to plastic deformation. Axial tensile pre-strain up to approximately 10% was applied to plate-type tensile specimens cut from the API 5L X65 pipe prior to mechanical testing. Tensile test revealed that the yield strength and the tensile strength increased with increasing tensile pre-strain. However, the CTOD and Charpy impact energy values for crack initiation decreased with increasing tensile pre-strain.
Authors: Jung Won Seo, Hyun Mu Hur, Sung Tae Kwon, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim
Abstract: Damage often occurs on the surface of railway wheels due to wheel-rail contact fatigue. Since the wheel failure can cause derailment causing the loss of life and property, it should be removed prior to the wheel failure. The effect of surface removal on contact fatigue life has been investigated by many researchers, however, the effects of residual stress and traction force have not been reported yet. The railway wheel reserves the initial residual stress due to the manufacturing process, and this residual stress is changed by the thermal stress induced by braking. Also, the traction force is usually applied along with residual stress on wheels of locomotive and electric motor vehicle. In this study, the effect of surface removal on the contact fatigue life for a railway wheel has been evaluated by applying the rolling contact fatigue test. Also, the effect of traction force and change of residual stress on the contact fatigue life has been estimated by applying finite element analysis. It is found that the residual stress is a dominant factor determining the surface removal depth as far as the traction coefficient is less than 0.15. If the traction coefficient is greater than 0.2, however, the surface removal depth is observed to be independent on the residual stress.
Authors: Dong Hyung Lee, Seok Jin Kwon, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim
Abstract: In this paper, the characterization of fretting damage on press-fitted specimens is proposed by experimental methods. A series of fatigue tests and interrupted fatigue tests on pressfitted specimens were carried out by using a rotate bending fatigue test machine. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics were observed to identify fretting damage mechanism with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and profilometer. The mechanism of fretting fatigue damage on pressfitted structure is discussed from experimental results. It is found that small cracks of 30~40m in depth are initiated when the specimen reached about 10% of the total life, and thus almost 90% of the fretting fatigue life of press fits can be considered to be in the crack propagation phase. Most of fatigue cracks are initiated at 1050m inner side of contact edge, and multiple cracks are nucleated and interconnected in the fretted surface. The crack nucleation angle in the near contact edge region is larger than that in the inside of the contact edge region. The fretting wear increased with increasing fatigue cycle. Since the fretting wear is relevant to the evolution of surface profile, the fretting fatigue is observed to be closely related with the fretting wear.
Authors: Seok Jin Kwon, Jung Won Seo, Hyun Mu Hur, Sung Tae Kwon
Abstract: Despite of improvement of wheel material for railway vehicle, the damages of railway wheel have been occurred in service running. Because of wheel damage with spalling, shelling and thermal crack, the maintenance cost for the railway wheel has increased. The railway wheel had standardized but the chemical composition, the mechanical property and the hardness with respect to railway wheel is merely established. In order to reduce wheel damage, it is necessary to reinforce the standard of railway wheel. In present study, the fracture mechanics characteristics of railway wheel such as low cycle fatigue, fracture toughness, impact energy depended on low temperature and so on have tested. The result shows that the standard of railway wheel has to supplement fracture toughness and impact energy depended on low temperature etc.
Authors: Jae Soon Jang, Myoung Rae Cho, Won Ho Yang
Abstract: Cold expansion method and interference fit of fastener hole have been used for over 40 years by the aircraft industry to improve the fatigue life of structures because they induce compressive residual stresses around holes. Especially, interference fits are very widely applied in the industry, because of their simple manufacturing process. There have been only few studies on the difference in the effect between cold expansion method and interference fit. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect between cold expansion method and interference fit according to plate thickness. Furthermore, residual stress distribution according to real clamping force is also investigated.
Authors: Won Seok Jung, Dong Ho Bae, Gee Wook Song, Jung Seob Hyun, Bum Shin Kim
Abstract: The vehicle suspension system is directly influenced to ride and handling. Therefore, the major components of the vehicle suspension system should have enough fatigue strength during its lifetime to protect passenger from the traffic accident. Spring is one of the major suspension part of vehicle. Thus, in this paper, a fatigue design method for leaf spring was proposed. At first, numerical stress analysis for leaf spring assembly was performed. On the base of the analysis results, fatigue strength of leaf spring was assessed. And next, after studying numerically on geometrical parameters of leaf spring assembly, an economical prediction method of fatigue design criterion for leaf spring assembly using the theory of artificial neural network was developed and certified its usefulness. Without performing a lot of additional fatigue test for a long time, fatigue design criterion for a new leaf spring assembly having different geometry can be predicted on the base of the already obtained fatigue data.
Authors: Sung Cheol Yoon, Won Kyung Kim, Jeong Guk Kim
Abstract: This paper describes the results of structural analysis and loading test of a bogie frame. The purpose of the analysis and test is to evaluate the safety and functionality of the bogie frame under maximum load. The bogie system consist of the bogie frame, suspensions, wheel-sets, a brake system and a transmission system. Of these components, the bogie frame is the major component subjected to the vehicle and passenger loads. The evaluation method used the JIS E 4207 specifications throughout the FEM analysis and static load test. The test results have shown the bogie frame to be safe and stable under design load conditions.
Authors: Won Jo Park, Sun Chul Huh, Sung Ho Park
Abstract: Small steel ball is utilized in Shot peening process. Called “shot ball” are shot in high speed on the surface of metal. When the shot ball hit the surface, it makes plastic deformation and bounce off, that increase the fatigue life by compressive residual stress on surface. In this study, the results of observation on the tensile strength, hardness, surface roughness, compressive residual stress and fatigue life of a shot peened Al6061-T651 were obtained. Experimental results show that arc height increase tremendously by shot velocity. Also, it shows that surface roughness, hardness, compressive residual stress and fatigue life increase as shot velocity increase.
Authors: Jae Young Jeong, Jong Sik Park, Sung Jin Kim, Su Young Lee, Woo Hyun Lee, Chan Seok Park, Jang Pyo Hong, Seong Beom Lee
Abstract: An automotive bushing is a device used in automotive suspension systems to reduce the load transmitted from the wheel to the frame of the vehicle. A bushing is a hollow cylinder, which is bonded to a solid steel shaft at its inner surface and a steel sleeve at its outer surface. The relation between the force applied to the shaft and the relative deformation of a bushing is nonlinear and exhibits features of viscoelasticity. In this paper, an automotive bushing is regarded as nonlinear viscoelastic incompressible material. Instron 8801 equipment was used for experimental research and ramp-to-constant displacement control test was used for data acquisition. Displacementdependent force relaxation function was obtained from the force extrapolation method and expressed as the explicit combination of time and displacement. Pipkin-Rogers model, which is the direct relation of force and displacement, was obtained and comparison studies between the experimental results and the Pipkin-Rogers results were carried out.
Authors: Shao Chiu Shih, Yong Zhong Wang, Li Li Wang
Abstract: The dynamic mechanical behavior of C30 concrete under a wide range of strain rates from 10-4s-1 up to 102s-1 is studied. According to Johnson-Cook’s strength model, the strain rate coefficients and related material constants of C30 concrete subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high pressures are determined experimentally: C=0.34*10-1, A=1.05, B=1.65, N=0.76, TC =3.162MPa, fc’=39.2MPa. The damage evolution for C30 concrete is a rate-dependent process, which can be formulated to a rate-dependent damage evolution law in a simple form for engineering application. When ε > ε th, ( ) 1 D th D = K ε&α − ε −ε . The corresponding dynamic coefficients of C30 concrete are also obtained from impact experimental results: KD=530.2, a=0.83. Due to a<1, the damage evolution corresponds to an impact toughening process that coincide well with the dynamic experimental results for C30 concrete.

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