Experimental Mechanics in Nano and Biotechnology

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Authors: Hyung Yil Lee, Yun Jae Kim
Abstract: Critical defects in pressure vessels and pipes are generally found in the form of a semielliptical surface crack, and the analysis of which is consequently an important issue in engineering fracture mechanics. Furthermore, in addition to the traditional single parameter K or J-integral, the second parameter like T-stress should be measured to quantify the constraint effect. In this work, the validity of the line-spring model is investigated by comparing line-spring J-T solutions to the reference 3D finite element J-T solutions. A full 3D-mesh generating program for semi-elliptical surface cracks is employed to provide such reference 3D solutions. Then some structural characteristics of the surface-cracked T and L-joints are studied by mixed mode line-spring finite element. Negative T-stresses observed in T and L-joints indicate the necessity of J-T two parameter approach for analyses of surface-cracked T and L-joints.
Authors: Sang Yun Park, Jai Hak Park
Abstract: The finite element alternating method based on the superposition principle has been known as an effective method to obtain the stress intensity factors for general multiple collinear or curvilinear cracks in an isotropic plate. In this paper the method is extended further to solve two-dimensional cracks embedded in a bimaterial plate. The main advantage of this method is that it is not necessary to make crack meshes considering the stress singularity at the crack tip. The solution of the developed code is obtained from an iteration procedure, which alternates independently between the finite element method solution for an uncracked body and the analytical solution for cracks in an infinite body. In order to check the validity of the method, several crack problems of a bimaterial body are solved and compared with the results obtained from the finite element analysis.
Authors: Hong Rui Ao, Hong Yuan Jiang, A.M. Ulanov
Abstract: Metal rubber (MR) sleeve isolators have been widely applied in aerospace industry. An experimental investigation into its fatigue lifetime was conducted. The results indicate that its performance is determined by the following factors: the relative deformation of MR sleeve elements, the preloading of sleeve elements, friction coefficient of metal wires and vibration amplitude. It is concluded that solid lubricates can increase the lifetime of MR isolator greatly but lower its ability to dissipate vibrating energy.
Authors: Jung Seob Hyun, Gee Wook Song, Young Shin Lee
Abstract: An experimental program has been carried out to address the thermo-mechanical fatigue life of the uncoated IN738LC nickel-base superalloy. High temperature isothermal Fatigue and out-of-phase(OP), in-phase(IP) TMF experiments in strain control were performed on superalloy materials. Temperature interval of 450-850 was applied to thermo-mechanical fatigue tests. The stress-strain response and the life cycle of the material were measured during the test. The plastic strain energy based life pediction models were applied to the stress-strain history effect on the thermo-mechanical fatigue lives.
Authors: J.S. Eom, B.H. Ju, N. Choi, J.M. Park, Byung Chai Lee, H.B. Byun
Abstract: In the motor industry, the number of spot welded points is closely related to overall cost of the vehicle assembly. A design based on experience is probable to lead redundant spot welded joints. Welded joints are critical in the structural performance, so it is hard to reduce the number. A measurable design index on the design of spot weld configuration is proposed in this study. We optimized the spot welding location and number in the lower control arm of the vehicle and automobile body, as far as the structure retained the structural stiffness. In order to ensure the requirements, we use a sizing optimization of each spot weld stiffness for the global structural rigidity. The survival index is defined the summation of resulted design variables, which is equal to the number of survival in the series of sizing optimizations. With this design index, one can optimally measure the importance of each spot weld joint and remove the redundant spot welds from the structure design.
Authors: Seong Kyun Cheong, Dong Sun Lee, Yong Soo Kang, Tae Kun Lee, Hyun Kyu Kim
Abstract: Shot peening generate compressive residual stress, which reduces repeatedly assessed tension stress and increase fatigue life. In this paper, the fatigue characteristics are evaluated according to shot peening condition for the real differential gear. The specimen is a straight bevel gear which transmits rotation of engine to running wheel and it is caburized. The bending fatigue test was done by the jig of our own making. The peening time was changed to find the best condition for the long fatigue life time. Fractography of specimen was analyzed by SEM to detect the location of initial crack. The experimental results show that the optimum peening condition is at 65m/s of shot ball speed and 8min of shot peening time. From the SEM image, the location of initial defect and direction of crack propagation were found
Authors: Shinji Ando, Takahiro Sakamoto, Yukishige Ikejiri, Masayuki Tsushida, Hideki Tonda
Abstract: Fatigue test of titanium single crystals with different crystallographic orientations has been carried. To investigate fatigue fracture behavior of small single crystals, plain bending fatigue test method for thin sheet specimen was developed. One end of the sheet specimen is fixed at a voice coil of the loudspeaker and the other end is set free. A bending mode resonance occurs in the specimen due to forced vibration at the fixed end. In A-specimen, a notch plane and the direction are (11 20) and [1100], respectively, the crack propagates parallel to {1100} plane and striation-like markings are observed on the fatigue surfaces. In B-specimen with a notch of (1100) [1120], the crack also propagates parallel to {1100} plane as similar to A-specimen. These cracks are deduced to extend by alternating shear on two intersecting prismatic slip systems at the crack tip. In F-specimen with a notch of (0001) [11 20], the crack propagates parallel to (0001) and some trace of pyramidal slip was observed on the fatigue surface. As a result, S-N curves of each specimen showed strong orientation dependence. Fatigue strength of F-specimen is higher than that of A- and B-specimen.
Authors: Khalil Farhangdoost, Mohammad Kavoosi
Abstract: In this paper, the mechanism of fatigue crack propagation of one-way rail road and the effects of some parameters such as crack length, initial crack angle, contact stress, friction, hydraulic pressure and crack propagation direction, in fracture toughness are presented so that it can be used to predict the fatigue life of rail road. The results of stress intensity range factor in one-way rail road are compared with two-way rail road. It is demonstrated that the crack in one-way growth faster than two-way rail road.
Authors: Shinji Ando, Kazuaki Toda, Masayuki Tsushida, Hideki Tonda, Yoshihito Kawamura
Abstract: Recently, Mg-Zn-Y alloys with superior performance, which have a long period order (LPO) phase, have been developed. Therefore, it is important to understand fundamental fatigue properties in such materials. In this study, the fatigue fracture behavior of Mg-Zn2-Y2-Zr0.2 alloy has been investigated using a plain fatigue bending testing machine, which was originally developed for thin sheet specimen. One end of the sheet specimen is fixed at a voice coil of the loudspeaker and the other end is set free. A bending mode resonance occurs in the specimen due to forced vibration at the fixed end. To estimate stress amplitude of bending, deflections at the free end of the specimen oscillating at a frequency of about 250~700Hz was measured by a laser displacement gauge. For comparison, AZ31B alloy also has been investigated. S-N curve for the Mg-Zn2-Y2-Zr0.2 alloy was obtained using a stress ratio of R=-1, and the fatigue strength was estimated as about 200MPa at 106~108 cycles. The value corresponds to about 50% of 0.2% proof strength of the alloy. Two types of fatigue surface were observed in the alloy. One is striation like pattern and the other is relatively flat surface. The former is similar to fatigue surface of AZ31B. Therefore, these two types of fatigue surface correspond to crack passing through α-Mg phase and LPO phase, respectively.
Authors: J.C. Kim, M.Y. Ahn, Yoon Suk Chang, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim, Myung Jo Jhung, Young Hwan Choi
Abstract: In general, the fatigue life of major nuclear components has been evaluated based on design codes conservatively. However, sometimes, more exact fatigue life evaluation is required for continued operation beyond the endorsed life. The purpose of this paper is to carry out 3-D stress and fatigue analyses reflecting full geometry as well as actual operating data. The actual operating data acquired through a monitoring system were filtered and assessed. Then, temperature and stress transfer Green’s functions were developed and applied to critical locations of reactor pressure vessel. The finite element analyses results for representative design transients were verified through comparison to reference solution and showed that the conservatism of current 2-D evaluation. Therefore, it is anticipated that the proposed scheme adopting Green’s function and real operating histories can be utilized for remaining life time evaluation of major components.

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