Experimental Mechanics in Nano and Biotechnology

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Authors: Woo Gon Kim, Sang Nan Yin, Woo Seog Ryu, Jong Hwa Chang
Abstract: The creep properties for the Hastelloy-X alloy which is one of candidate alloys for a high temperature gas-cooled reactor are presented. The creep data was obtained with different stresses at 950oC, and a number of the creep data was collected through literature surveys. All of the creep data were combined together to obtain the creep constants and to predict a long-term creep life. In the Norton’s creep law and the Monkman-Grant relationship, the creep constants, A, n, m, and m’ were obtained. Creep master curves based on the Larson-Miller parameter were presented for the standard deviations of 1σ, 2σ and 3σ. Creep life at each temperature was predicted for a longer-time rupture above 105 hours. Failure probability was also estimated by a statistical process of all the creep rupture data.
Authors: Dong Ming Yan, Gao Lin
Abstract: Before concrete structures are subjected to dynamic loadings such as earthquake, usually they have already withstood static loads. Accordingly, the study on the strain-rate sensitivity of concrete should also be closely related to the initial static loads that concrete structures experience. But majority of the available documents concerning the dynamic properties of concrete do not take initial static load into consideration. In this study, experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of initial static load on the dynamic strength and deformation characteristics of concrete in compression. A load was initially applied on the specimen at a very low speed to a specified value and then the dynamic load was applied at a high strain rate up to the failure of the specimen. From the test results it was revealed that the initial static load had significant influence on the dynamic strength. The dynamic strength tended to decrease as initial static load increased. An exponential function was proposed to formulate the relationship between the initial static load and the dynamic strength.
Authors: Deokki Youn, Usik Lee, Oh Yang Kwon
Abstract: In this paper, an experimental verification has been conducted for a frequency response function (FRF)-based structural damage identification method (SDIM) proposed in the previous study [1]. The FRF-based SDIM requires the natural frequencies and mode shapes measured in the intact state and the FRF-data measured in the damaged state. Experiments are conducted for the cantilevered beam specimens with one and three slots. It is shown that the proposed FRF-based SDIM provides damage identification results that agree quite well with true damage state.
Authors: Shao Peng Ma, Lai Gui Wang, Guan Chang Jin
Abstract: In order to evaluate the damage evolution of rock under external loading, the surface deformation field of a rectangle marble specimen is inspected and analyzed using digital speckle correlation method (DSCM). Experimental results show that the damage evolution of rock undergoes 3 stages: they are uniformly distributed damage, localized damage and catastrophic failure stage. A statistic indicator, standard deviation of the strain field, can be used to quantitatively express the damage localization level.
Authors: Seong Woo Byun, Young Shin Lee, Hyun Seung Lee, Je Jun Lee
Abstract: The hot mill spindle assembly is the important component of the hot rolling process and used for transmission of rotational power. The contact surface between end coupling and slipper metal have high stress concentration due to operation interference. The life cycles of slipper metal are reduced by the contact surface damage. In this study, the structural analysis and kinematics simulation are performed by applying the various driving angle and dynamic boundary condition of the mill spindle assembly. This study aims to minimize the contact damage which might happen in the production process.
Authors: Cai Hua Liu, Z.H. Ye, Cong Xin Chen, Xia Ting Feng, Q. Shen, G.F. Xiao
Abstract: As a typical model of steep-tilt or moderate-tilt bedding rock slopes, buckling failure differs greatly from tensile or shear failure. The mechanical characteristic of buckling failure is analyzed, and the geo-mechanics model of buckling failure is put forward. The process of buckling failure includes three phases: slope terrane creep deformation, the lower of slope terrane bend deformation, and terrane structure collapse. Using pressure bar failure theory, a formulation for calculating critical load of buckling failure is developed, which shows that critical load decreases with bend length increasing. The relationship between critical slope length and bend length is analyzed. It is indicated that critical slope length decreases with bend length increasing, and that critical slope length reaches minimal value while critical load is zero. The minimal slope length can be considered as a limit value while analyzing buckling failure of bedding slope, and its calculation equation is developed.
Authors: C.S. Jeong, Bum Joon Kim, Byeong Soo Lim
Abstract: The initiation and growth of micro-defects such as micro cracks and voids usually causes the failure of long term operated structural components at high temperature. In this study, the creep characteristics and void nucleation and growth characteristics of P92 steel which is used as main steam pipe material in power plant were investigated at several temperatures and loading conditions. The area fraction of void increased with increase of test temperature, stress, and load holding time. In case of internal defect presence, micro-voids initiated in the early stage of loading period and resulted in the increased load line displacement and crack growth rate. The microvoids were found to form along the prior austenite grain boundaries and at the martensite packet boundaries.
Authors: Oh Chae Kwon, K.H. Lee, H.S. Ko, T. Kim
Abstract: Stability limits of premixed microflames were experimentally and computationally studied in order to understand the fundamental behavior of the flames when applied for micropower generation. Single microflames were generated on microtubes with inner diameters of 300-420 μm for methane-air mixtures at temperatures of 298-400 K and atmospheric pressure. For all the microflames at normal temperature, the stability limits were observed in a fuel-rich region, which is different from conventional macroflames exhibiting fuel-lean stability limits. Similar to the macroflames, however, the stability limits of the microflames show C-shaped curves in a tube exit Reynolds number (Re) – fuel equivalence ratio diagram, due to insufficient residence times and heat losses. For elevated temperature that is realistic condition for micropower generation using a heat-recirculation concept, the stability limits were extended toward the fuel-leaner conditions. Numerically predicted structure of microflames near the critical point (that is defined as the fuel-leanest condition among the C-shaped fuel-rich stability limits) showed significant fuel-dilution immediately near the tube exit due to a low Re effect, explaining why the stability limits of microflames are observed only in the fuel-rich region. Microcombustors for micropower generation should be designed to completely consume fuel for better performance.
Authors: Kenji Machida, Shohei Miyagawa
Abstract: Influence of the frequency to the temperature image obtained by an infrared thermography was investigated using specimens of three kinds of materials at four kinds of frequencies of the cyclic load. Then, the infrared hybrid method was developed to separate individual stress components. However, the influence of heat conduction is inevitable in the infrared stress measurement method. Therefore, an error arises in the infrared hybrid analysis. Then, the system which corrects the error by the inverse analysis was developed. Thereby, the accuracy of the stress intensity factor was able to be raised. Furthermore, the accuracy of hybrid method considering to heat conduction was discussed in comparison with the 3-D finite element analysis and 2-D hybrid method.
Authors: Jine Sung Jung, Keun Bong Yoo, Eui Hyun Kim, Chae Hong Jeon, Do Hyang Kim
Abstract: Rotating components used in the hot sections of land-based gas turbine are exposed to severe environment of several ten thousands operating hours above 1100. To protect such components against high temperature oxidation an intermediate bond coat is applied, typical of a MCrAlY-type metal alloy. Various processing methods have been studied for bond coat deposition. This study is concerned with the cyclic oxidation behavior of CoNiCrAlY coatings. Coatings were deposited by a vacuum plasma spray and high-velocity oxygen fuel method on a nickel-based superalloy (GTD-111). Cyclic thermal oxidation test condition is at 1100 in ambient air for various periods of time. Tests were used to evaluate the oxidation resistance of the spray-coated specimens. The microstructure and morphology of as-sprayed and of tested specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The oxide phases formed on the coating surface are NiO, CoCr2O4, and Al2O3. The nickel oxide of them was to be dominant with increasing cycles. The differences in microstructure and phase composition in the interface with coating layer are reported. The influence of coating process methods on coating characteristics and degradation mechanisms is discussed. The HVOF coating with the splats was more resistant on the high temperature oxidation than the VPS coating.

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