Experimental Mechanics in Nano and Biotechnology

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Authors: Gee Hwan Yeo, Jung Kim, Bong Soo Kang
Abstract: This paper presents design concepts of a reconfiguration mobile robot developed in Hannam University and experimental results of position estimation by multiple sensors. In order to achieve high reliability and mobility in maneuver, driving motors of the mobile robot are assembled inside the wheels of the mobile robot, and the rhombus-shaped structure of the mobile robot with four wheels yields as good adaptability to rough terrain as a six-wheel mobile robot. Since the proposed mobile robot receives multiple sensor signals from odometers and an orientation sensor, states related to position and orientation of the mobile robot are optimally calculated by the extended Kalman filter. Experimental results show that tracking errors of the mobile robot can be reduced remarkably by the optimal state observer.
Authors: Jeong Hwan Nam, Jai Sug Hawong, Ouk Sub Lee, Dong Chul Shin
Abstract: In this paper, transparent dynamic photoelastic experimental hybrid method for propagating cracks in orthotropic material was developed. Using transparent dynamic photoelastic experimental hybrid method, we can obtain stress intensity factor and separate the stress components from only isochromatic fringe patterns without using isoclinics. When crack is propagated with constant velocity, the contours of stresses components in the vicinity of crack tip in orthotropic material are similar to those of isotropic material or orthotropic material with stationary crack under the static load. Dynamic stress intensity factors are decreased as crack growth. It was certified that the dynamic photoelastic experimental hybrid method was very useful for the analysis of the dynamic fracture mechanics.
Authors: Rafidah Hasan, Iswadi Jauhari, Hiroyuki Ogiyama, Raden Dadan Ramdan
Abstract: In this research, conventional boronizing process (CB) and a new method of boronizing process under compression load condition (LB) were conducted and compared in order to study the effect of superplasticity on boronized substrate. Both processes were conducted on duplex stainless steel (DSS) with two different microstructures; as-received DSS with coarse grain microstructure (CDSS); and thermo-mechanically treated DSS with fine grain microstructure (FDSS) which can show superplastic behavior at high temperatures. Both processes were conducted at duration of 6 hours and temperatures between 1123 and 1223 K. All of boronized specimens demonstrated thin, smooth and compact morphology of boride layer. For CDSS, both CB and LB processes produced about similar surface hardness values within the range of 1425 – 2330 HV. For FDSS, CB process produced surface hardness between 1522 and 2601 HV, while under LB, the highest surface hardness values in the range of 1659 - 2914 HV were obtained. The result shows that introduction of load during boronizing has initiated superplastic deformation on FDSS thus accelerated diffusion of boron atoms into surface which finally lead to significantly higher surface hardness.
Authors: Jeong Guk Kim
Abstract: Tensile failure behavior of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) was characterized with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. Prior to the mechanical testing, infrared (IR) thermography was employed to obtain thermal diffusivity maps for CMC specimens. IR thermography also was used for quantitative analyses of the progressive damage and in-situ monitoring of the damage during tensile tests, while ultrasonic (UT) C-scans were used to present defect distributions of the composites. The thermal diffusivity map showed good consistency with ultrasonic C-scan results of CMC specimens. In this investigation, qualitative relationship between UT signatures and thermal diffusivity has been introduced, and the temperature changes of CMC specimens during tensile test have been measured. Moreover, the correlation between NDE results and fracture behavior of CMCs has been presented to understand tension fracture behavior of CMCs.
Authors: Young Chang Park, Yong Hwan Kim, Seung Jae Lee, Young Ze Lee
Abstract: Fretting can be defined as the oscillatory motion with very small amplitudes, which usually occur between two contacting surfaces. Fretting wear is the removal of material from contacting surfaces through fretting action. This fretting wear, which occurs between cladding tubes of nuclear fuel rod and grids, causes in damages the cladding tubes by flow induced vibration in a nuclear reactor. In this paper the fretting wear tests were performed with two types of cladding tubes and three types of supporting grids in water. Fretting wear tests were done using various applied loads. From the results of fretting tests, the wear amounts of tube materials can be predictable by obtaining the wear coefficient using the work rate model. Depending on various normal load, tube materials, and supporting grid shapes, distinctively different wear scar of fretting and stick-slip mechanism can occur.
Authors: Myung Hwan Boo, Chi Yong Park
Abstract: Dissimilar weld region located at the cooling tube of pump was damaged and failed. We performed a root cause analysis using the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy for the fractured surface. Many internal defects were shown in the fracture section. Root cause analysis shows that the failure is due to welding at higher temperature over 1000. This was confirmed by high-temperature cracks observed with SEM. In this study Failure scenario including initial crack generation, propagation of corrosion cracks and final failure, has been constructed and verified.
Authors: Chi Yong Park, Jeong Keun Lee
Abstract: Fretting wear generated by flow induced vibration is one of the important degradation mechanisms of steam generator tubes in the nuclear power plants. Understanding of tube wear characteristics is very important to keep the integrity of the steam generator tubes to secure the safety of the nuclear power plants. Experimental examination has been performed for the purpose of investigating the impact fretting. Test material is alloy 690 tube and 409 stainless steel tube supports. From the results of experiments, wear scar progression is investigated in the case of impact-fretting wear test of steam generator tubes under plant operating conditions such as pressure of 15MPa, high temperature of 290C and low dissolved oxygen. Hammer imprint that is actual damaged wear pattern, has been observed on the worn surface. From investigation of wear scar pattern, wear mechanism was initially the delamination wear due to cracking the hard oxide film and finally transferred to the stable impact-fretting pattern.
Authors: Jing Huang, Qing Ming Zhang, Jin Qing Li, Chuan Xiao
Abstract: The experiments of the shielded charge initiated by the high speed half- prefabricated steel fragment has been studied in this paper. The damage way of half- prefabricated steel fragment to the shielded charge is hit, burning or detonation action. And the damage effect is structure damage or function damage. The result shows that toward Comp. B explosive with 1.62g/cm3 dense behind 6mm Q235 steel and of φ 200 mm×100mm size, the fragment’s critical detonation speed is about 2 400~2 600m/s.
Authors: Sun Chul Huh, Yong Gil Jung, Won Jo Park, Jae Joon Sim
Abstract: Small Butterfly valve is specially designed for use in industry field and ship. The important parts of butterfly valve are composed of disk, stem and body. But, like LNG ship, in enviroment of low temperature, as working condition deteriorates, important of sealing more increased. In this study, we examine sealing mechanism of butter valve on the base of FEM and investigate sealing life by measurement. The finite element analysis was carried out to study the effect of the seal ring shape on bi-directional sealing force of valve. The sealing mechanism was evaluated by 2-dimensional model in order to save the analysis time. And these analyses used by material non-linearity and contact element were implemented.
Authors: Sung Hoon Jeong, Jung Min Park, Joong Hui Lee, Young Ze Lee
Abstract: Tubes in nuclear steam generators are held up by supports because the tubes are long and slender. Fluid flows of high-pressure and high-temperature in the tubes cause oscillating motions between tubes and supports. This is called as FIV (flow induced vibration), which causes fretting wear in contact parts of tube-support. The fretting wear of tube-support can threaten the safety of nuclear power plant. Therefore, a research about the fretting wear characteristics of tube-support is required. This work is focused on fretting wear transitions from mild wear to severe wear of tube-support materials by various loads and relative displacements. The transition is defined on the basis of the changes in wear amount. To investigate the transition, the fretting wear tester was contrived to prevent the reduction of relative displacement between tube and support by increasing the load. The tube and support materials were Inconel 690 and 409 SS, respectively. The results show that the transition of tube-support wear is caused by the changes of the dominant wear mechanism depending on the applied load and the relative displacement.

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