Bioceramics 19

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Authors: L.S. Ozyegin, Faik N. Oktar, Simeon Agathopoulos, S. Salman, Y. Bozkurt, Niyazi Eruslu
Abstract: Composites of calcinated bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite (BHA) doped 0.5 and 1 wt% CaF2 were prepared by sintering. The production of BHA from natural sources is preferred due to money and time saving reasons. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis together with measurements of density and compression strength were carried out in the produced samples. The experimental results indicated that compression strength of the composites increase when sintering temperature increases. The best compression strength was achieved after sintering at 1200°C for 0.5% CaF2 addition. The results are in agreement with densification measurements and microstructure analysis. With regards to the amount of CaF2, the results indicate that small additions of F, lower than 0.5%, can further improve the mechanical properties of HA.
Authors: L.S. Ozyegin, S. Salman, Faik N. Oktar, Simeon Agathopoulos, Onur Meydanoglu, S. Akesi, I. Yukler
Abstract: Composites of calcinated bovine bone derived hydroxyapatite (HA) with 0.5 and 1 wt% Y2O3 were prepared by sintering. Money and time saving feature the production of HA from natural sources. In this study, results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis aimed to interpret the results of measurements of densification, microhardness, and compression strength of the produced composites. The best mechanical properties were achieved after sintering at 1200°C for compressive strength and 1300°C for microhardness. The results are in a fair agreement with densification measurements and microstructure analysis.
Authors: Kui Cheng
Abstract: Biphasic α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (α-TCP/HA) calcium phosphate (BCP) is prepared through a modified slip casting based method: α-TCP powders are dispersed in the HA precursor solutions to form castable slurries, then the slurries are poured into round mold. After curing, the slurries turn into cakes. Room temperature curing leads the cakes to contain α-TCP and HA phases. Higher temperature heat treatment will result in the increase of HA content, while even higher temperature will leads the cakes to be triphasic. Low temperature derived BCP have particular microstructure with HA covers the surface of α-TCP powders, and these powders further agglomerate into large blocks. After higher temperature treatment, β-TCP dominates the cake and microporous structure is resulted.
Authors: Sergey V. Dorozhkin, Elena I. Dorozhkina, Faik N. Oktar, S. Salman
Abstract: A simplified preparation method of silicon-substituted calcium phosphates with a very high yield (close to 100%) has been elaborated, according to the principles of Green Chemistry. The technique consists of mixing of crystals of calcium nitrate and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate in the desired proportions, following by addition of the necessary amount of a silicon-containing compound. The homogenous mixture is sintered between 900 and 1200°C. Either a siliconcontaining hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) or a silicon-stabilized tricalcium phosphate (Si-αTCP) can be synthesized, depending on the Ca/P, Ca/(P+Si) and Si/P molar ratios.
Authors: Ingo Hofmann, Lenka Müller, Peter Greil, Frank A. Müller
Abstract: Hydroxy carbonated apatite (HCA) powders were prepared by precipitation from a modified SBF solution (5x M-SBF). The ionic concentrations were 5 times higher than in human blood plasma with the exception of Mg2+ and HCO3 - concentrations that were reduced in order to accelerate crystal growth. Spheroaggregates of HCA platelets with molar (Ca+Mg)/P ratios ranging from 1.44 to 1.56 were obtained after precipitation at 50 °C. The crystallite size in c-direction was approximately 20 nm and depending on the precipitation time a CO3 2- content of 1.8 to 5.2 wt.-% was determined. Using this low temperature precipitation method, HCA powders with a high specific surface area of 83 m2/g and a composition and crystallite size close to those of the mineral phase of human bone were obtained.
Authors: Renate Gildenhaar, Georg Berger, E. Lehmann, Michael Stiller, Ch. Koch, Paul Ducheyne, A. Rack, H. Seligmann, S. Jonscher, Christine Knabe
Authors: Jun Ou, Guang Fu Yin, Da Li Zhou, X. C. Chen, Ya Dong Yao, Wei Zhong Yang, Bo Lin Wu, Ming Xue, Jun Cui, Wen Feng Zhu, Yun Qing Kang
Abstract: Merwinite powders were synthesized by a sol-gel process. The bioactivity in vitro of merwinite was investigated by soaking the powders in simulated body fluid (SBF), the growth of hydroxyapatite(HAp) on the surface of the powder was evaluated in various time. It was found that hydroxyapatite was formed after soaking for 14 days. The results indicate that merwinite possessed apatite-formation ability might be a potential candidate biomaterial for hard tissue repair.
Authors: H. Lee, J.W. Park, Byung Ju Choi, S.I. Yeo, Jo Young Suh
Abstract: The response of osteoblast-like cells cultured on blasted and/or acid etching surfaces and the influence of surface texture or microtopography on cell attachment, cell proliferation, and the gene expression of the osteoblastic phenotype using ROS 17/2.8 cell lines were evaluated. The blasted and/or acid etching surfaces were significantly rougher in comparison to machined and etched surfaces (p < 0.05). On X-ray diffraction analysis, titanium hydride (TiH2) was observed on the surface etched with a mixture of HCl-H2SO4 solution, whereas TiH2 was not observed on machined and blasted surfaces. After 24 h incubation, most of the cells of all the groups had a flattened, polygonal shape and were fully spread, exhibiting the onset of proliferation. The MTT assay showed a significant decrease on the blasted surface compared to the machined surface at 7 day culture (p < 0.05). The expression of osteopontin mRNA, α1 (I) collagen mRNA, and alkaline phosphatase mRNA on rough surfaces was higher than on the machined surfaces, and was highest on the blasted surface at day 7.
Authors: Y.T. Jung, J.W. Park, S.I. Yeo, Byung Ju Choi, Kyo Han Kim, Jo Young Suh
Abstract: The effect of anodic oxide films produced by β-glycerophosphate (β-GP) and calcium acetate (CA) anodizing on osteoblast-like cell attachment and spreading were evaluated in this study. Anodic oxide films were produced in different conditions: Group 1, 0.02 M β-GP and 0.2 M CA; Group 2, 0.03 M β-GP and 0.2 M CA; Group 3, 0.03 M β-GP and 0.2 M CA. Anodic oxide surface was significantly rougher in comparison to the control untreated titanium surfaces, and the surface roughness and composition of phosphate and oxide increased as the concentration of β-GP was increased. There was no significant difference in the cell viability when cells were cultured on the control or anodized surface using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Scanning electron micrographs revealed more spread cells on the anodized surface than on the smooth control surface. In conclusion, we suggested that the positive effects of anodized surfaces produced by β-GP and CA on spreading of osteoblast-like cells may be the result of the difference of surface roughness and amount of Ca and P in the oxide layer.
Authors: Masanobu Kamitakahara, Shinichi Ogata, Masao Tanihara, Chikara Ohtsuki
Abstract: Electrophoresis can transport ions more rapidly and directionally in a gel. The controlled precipitation of calcium phosphates in an agarose gel was attempted by electrophoresis of calcium and phosphate ions. Wells were prepared on an agarose gel. A CaCl2 solution was placed in wells on the positive side and a Na2HPO4 solution in wells on the negative side. A potential of 100 V was then applied. White precipitates appeared in the gel after 11 min. The white area initially became larger and more intense with increasing time. However, after longer periods, the white area decreased and became weaker, before disappearing after 45 min. Spinous precipitates with a diameter of about 500 nm were obtained when the gels were collected after 20 min. The precipitates were characterized as particles of calcium phosphate.

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