Bioceramics 19

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Authors: He Bin Shi, Hong Zhong, Yu Liu, Feng Zhao Zhang, Ming Chuan Liang, Ming Chen
Abstract: This paper presents a typical coprecipitation method to synthesize silicate-substituted calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (SiCDHA). A homogeneous aqueous solution of Ca(NO3)2• 4H2O, H3PO4 and Si(CH3CH2O)4 (TEOS) was used as precursor, and NH3 aqueous solution as precipitator. A series of samples were prepared by adding the precipitator to the precursor then following a general coprecipitation route. The results showed that the so-prepared samples were SiCDHA. SiCDHA was thermal unstable and decomposed to tricalcium phosphate and wollastonite-like phase. These new phases were helpful to improve the bioactivity of sintered SiCDHA ceramics.
Authors: J.A. Stephen, J.M.S. Skakle, Iain R. Gibson
Abstract: Silicate substituted hydroxyapatite bioceramics have been shown to enhance bone repair in vivo compared to hydroxyapatite (HA), although the amount of silicate ions that can be substituted alone into the hydroxyapatite structure is limited to approximately 5.2 wt%, or 1.6 wt% Si. This study describes the substitution of greater levels of silicate ions via co-substitution of silicate ions with trivalent yttrium ions, without resulting in the formation of any secondary phases. This substitution mechanism involves a coupled substitution of yttrium and silicate ions for calcium and phosphate ions, respectively, and enables a level of silicate substitution up to approximately 9 wt%. Two different substitution mechanisms result in subtle differences in the crystal structure. When the mechanism xY3+ + xSiO4 4- was used, a small decrease in the a-axis, but no change in the c-axis, of the unit cell compared to HA was observed. In contrast, when the mechanism x/2Y3+ + xSiO4 4- was used, a significant increase in the c-axis of the unit cell was observed, compared to HA. XRF analysis and FTIR spectroscopy supported the proposed substitution mechanisms. These novel substitution mechanisms not only enable greater levels of silicate-substitution in HA to be prepared, but also allow the production of compositions with the same level of silicate substitution, and with subtle differences in chemical structure.
Authors: Y. Zhang, Yoshiyuki Yokogawa, Tetsuya Kameyama
Abstract: Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics, a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), of varying HAp/β-TCP ratios were prepared from fine powders. Porous BCP ceramic materials with HAp/β-TCP weight rations of 20/80, 40/60, and 80/20 were prepared. In this study, the bioactivity is reduced at a larger HAp content rate, which is likely related to the high driving pore for the formation of a new phase, and the reaction rate was proportional to the β-TCP. The porous BCP ceramics having a bigger porosity rate can easily under up dissolution. The powder having a larger β-TCP content rate can easily generate a new phase. The dissolution results confirmed that the biodegradation of calcium phosphate ceramics could be controlled by simply adjusting the amount of HAp or β-TCP in the ceramics and porosity rate.
Authors: Chi Min Lin, Shiow Kang Yen
Abstract: Biocompatibility of metallic implants and bone in orthopaedic surgery plays an important role in long-term survivor of the prosthetic implant fixation. However, titanium and its alloys do not bond to bone in the early stage of implantation (<6 months). On the other hand, titanium alloy undergoes electrochemical exchange and releases metallic ions in the physiological environment, which is believed to be the cause of implant failure. Cathodic electrolytic deposition is an important method in ceramic processing. In this paper, the nanocrystalline BaTiO3 coating were prepared by electrolytic deposition process. According to the XRD results, we can clearly identified that electrolytic deposition Barium titanate hydrate gel annealed at 350°C for 1 hr will form to BaTiO3, and its grain size about 4.85 nm. From dynamic cyclic polarization tests, we can found that dense BaTiO3 coated effective improved corrosion resistance of Ti substrate than untreated. From immersion tests, we can found that BaTiO3 exhibited excellent bioactive.
Authors: Hyung Sup Kim, Yong Keun Lee, Bum Soon Lim, Chong Pyong Chung, Sang Hoon Rhee
Abstract: The method which gives a low crystalline hydroxyl carbonated apatite forming ability to originally non-bioactive high crystalline hydroxyapatite surface was newly developed. The granules of trabecular bovine bone, which had a size range from 212 to 1000 μm, were defatted, deproteinized, and then heat-treated at 1000 oC for 3 hours to remove organics completely. They were treated with the mixed solution of calcium chloride and calcium hydroxide in Soxhlet’s apparatus at 100 oC for 3 days and then dried completely. Low crystalline hydroxyl carbonated apatite was observed to occur on the surface of high crystalline hydroxyapatite granules after soaking them into the simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 week. This method is likely to have a potential to be used as a new process to give a bioactivity to originally non-bioactive materials.
Authors: Giichiro Kawachi, Emile Hideki Ishida, Koji Ioku
Abstract: After hydrothermal treatment of tricalcium phosphate (TCP), calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) with much amount of a-surface (h00) was obtained. It was considered that c-surface of HA had larger surface tension than that of a-surface, therefore HA crystals elongated along c-axis of <001> directions. By using hydrothermal treatment, difference of surface tension was affected crystal growth of HA. The adsorption property of HA will be controlled by designing of HA morphology, because different crystal surfaces have different properties.
Authors: Qing Xia Zhu, Ming Lv, Jian Qing Wu
Abstract: Stability of hydroxyapatite(HA) structure is influenced by preparation conditions and afterwards heat treatment. In this paper, the powders with different Ca/P molar ratio were calcined to investigate the influence of Ca/P and heat treatment on thermal decomposition and reconstitution of HA. The results show that the Ca/P has little change even calcined at a high temperature of 1500°C. The Ca/P molar ratio close to 1.67 is beneficial to form high purity HA. HA gradually releases its OH- ions in the temperature range of 800-1200°C. The decomposition takes place at about 1200°C and will become more and more severe with the increase of temperature. Cooling with slow rate and post-heat treatment in wet atmosphere are beneficial to both the rehydration and the recovery of HA from the decomposition products (TTCP and α-TCP).
Authors: Kawashita Masakazu, Satomi Itoh, Kazunori Miyamoto, Rei Araki, Gikan H. Takaoka
Abstract: Polyethylene (PE) substrates were irradiated at a dose of 1×1015 ions·cm−2 by the simultaneous use of oxygen (O2) cluster and monomer ion beams. The acceleration voltage for the ion beams was 7 kV. Unirradiated and irradiated PE substrates were soaked in simulated body fluid with ion concentrations 1.5 times of those of human blood plasma (1.5SBF) for 7 days. The irradiated PE substrate formed apatite on its surface, whereas unirradiated one did not form it. This is attributed to the formation of functional groups effective for apatite nucleation, such as COOH groups, on the substrate surface by the simultaneous use of O2 cluster and monomer ion beams. In addition, the apatite-forming ability of the irradiated substrate was improved by the subsequent CaCl2 treatment. This suggests that Ca2+ ions present on the substrate surface accelerated the apatite deposition. We can conclude that apatite-forming ability can be induced on surface of polyethylene by the simultaneous use of O2 cluster and monomer ion beams.
Authors: Silvia R. A. Santos, Antonella M. Rossi, Marcelo Henrique Prado da Silva
Abstract: The present study presents the relevance of X-ray diffraction analysis using synchrotron light in the identification of phases with low intensity peaks. Niobium sheets were coated with monetite and then converted to hydroxyapatite in an alkali solution. Octacalcium phosphate was identified as an intermediate phase in the conversion monetite-hydroxyapatite.
Authors: Hong Hui Zhou, Hui Li, Ling Hong Guo
Abstract: Calcium-deficient hydroxylapatite (CDHA) powders with Ca/P ratios from1.5 to 1.67 were synthesized by wet-chemical method. Rietveld structure refinement was performed on the X-ray diffraction data and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize molecular and crystal structure of CDHA. With the decrease of Ca/P ratio, the crystallite size and crystallinity decreased, but the acid phosphate content and amount of vacancies in hydroxyapatite hexagonal structure increased. The disorder of CDHA structure increase indicated calcium-deficiency and HPO4 replacement resulted in disorder of crystal in apatite structure. The more calcium is deficient, the more disorder or imperfect in CDHA structure

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