Authors: Gow Yi Tzou, Sergei Alexandrov

Abstract: An upper bound solution for axisymmetric upsetting of two-layer cylinder made of rigid perfectly plastic materials is provided. An important feature of the solution is that the kinematically admissible velocity field, in addition to the necessary requirements of the upper bound theorem, satisfies the frictional boundary condition in stresses, the maximum friction law. The latter is archived by introducing a singular velocity field such that the equivalent strain rate approaches infinity at the friction surface. The dependence of the upper bound limit load on geometric parameters and the ratio of the yield stresses of the two materials is analyzed. The solution can be used in
industrial applications for evaluating the load required to deform two-layer cylinders.

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Authors: Sergei Alexandrov, Gow Yi Tzou

425

Authors: Sergei Alexandrov

Abstract: The present paper concerns with the concept of the strain rate intensity factor in rigid plastic solids. The strain rate intensity factor is the coefficient of the principal singular term in the expansion of the equivalent strain rate in a series in the vicinity of maximum friction surfaces. Such singular velocity fields appear in solutions based on several rigid plastic models. Because of this singularity in the velocity field, many conventional evolution equations for material properties are not compatible with such rigid plastic solutions. On the other hand, qualitative behaviour of the singular rigid plastic solutions in the vicinity of maximum friction surfaces is in agreement with a number of experimental results. Therefore, the primary objective of research in this direction is to develop an approach to relate parameters of the singular velocity fields and parameters characterizing material properties. The approaches proposed in previous works are based on the strain rate intensity factor. In the case of analytical and semi-analytical solutions the strain rate intensity factor can be found by means of an asymptotic analysis of the solutions. A number of such solutions obtained by inverse methods are reviewed in the present paper and the strain rate intensity factor is found. An effect of process parameters on its magnitude is shown and discussed.

1

Authors: Elena Lyamina, Gow Yi Tzou, Shao Yi Hsia

Abstract: The paper concerns with an effect of plastic anisotropy on the load required to deform hollow cylinders between two parallel, rough dies. It is assumed that the material obeys Hill’s quadratic yield criterion and its associated flow rule. The friction stress is supposed to be proportional to the corresponding shear yield stress, including the maximum friction law as a special case. The kinematically admissible velocity field is chosen such that the stress field following from the associated flow rule satisfies the boundary condition at the plane of symmetry. Moreover, this velocity field is singular in the vicinity of the friction surface. Therefore, in the case of the maximum friction law the friction law is satisfied, again if the associated flow rule is combined with the velocity field. A significant effect of plastic anisotropy on the limit load is illustrated.

71

Authors: Sergei Alexandrov

Abstract: The limit load is an essential input parameter of flaw assessment procedures. The present paper deals with an effect of plastic anisotropy on its value. An upper bound solution for three-dimensional deformation of a highly under-matched welded specimen subject to tension is proposed. The base material is assumed to be rigid, and the weld material obeys Hill’s quadratic yield criterion for orthotropic materials. It is demonstrated that it is crucial to account for both plastic anisotropy and three dimensionality of deformation in limit load calculations for flaw assessment procedures.

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