Hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate (HA-TCP) is a new kind of material which shows good biocompatibility, biological degradability, and porosity. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of HA-TCP as a bone tissue engineering scaffold. In this study, critical size cranial defects were reconstructed with compounds of autogenous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and HA-TCP. The resulting grafts were examined by X-ray, histological examination, semi-quantitative analysis of osteogenesis, immunochemical examination (collagen type I and III), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that HA-TCP is a good bone tissue engineering scaffold and BMSCs/HA-TCP is a promising technique for reconstruction of bone defects.