Sol-Gel Process for Proton Exchange Membranes
The sol-gel process has been used to modify the electrolyte membrane used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). Recent progress is reported in the synthesis of hybrid membranes involving Nafion®. These membranes have been prepared by infiltration and recasting, and contain silicates, phosphosilicates, zirconium phosphosilicates, titanosilicates, or phosphotungstates.
L. C. Klein "Sol-Gel Process for Proton Exchange Membranes", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 391, pp. 159-168, 2009