XPS Characterization of Perovskite Relaxor PNN Ceramics Prepared by Corundum Precursor Method
Perovskite ferroelectric PNN ceramics have been obtained from oxides by sintering in air, using a two-stage process with corundum Ni4Nb2O9 precursor. Under suitable firing condition, XRD analysis revealed that the ceramics consist of 100% perovskite phase. The SEM, EDX, and XPS techniques were employed to investigate the chemical composition of the surfaces of the PNN ceramics. Fluctuation in chemical composition, precipitation of NiO and the Pb-Ni-Nb-O phase different from perovskite were found.
Tadashi Takenaka, Hajime Haneda, Kazumi Kato, Masasuke Takata and Kazuo Shinozaki
L. Srisombat et al., "XPS Characterization of Perovskite Relaxor PNN Ceramics Prepared by Corundum Precursor Method", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 421-422, pp. 415-418, 2010