An Improved Ant Colony System Based on Negative Biased
Ant System (AS) was the first Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm, which converged too slowly and consumed huge computation. Among the variants of AS, Ant Colony System (ACS) was one of the most successful algorithms. But ACS converged so rapidly that it always was in early stagnation. An improved Ant Colony System based on Negative Biased (NBACS) was introduced in the paper to overcome the early stagnation of the ACS. Experiments for Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) showed that better solutions were obtained at the same time when the convergence rate accelerated more rapidly.
J. Q. Yang et al., "An Improved Ant Colony System Based on Negative Biased", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 439-440, pp. 558-562, 2010