Silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) thin film systems have had specific electronic applications because they can reduce noise and current leakage in metal oxide semiconductor transistors. However, there are some issues in producing defect-free SOS wafers. Dislocations, misfit, micro twins and residual stresses can emerge during the SOS processing and they will reduce the performance of an SOS product. For some reasons, research publications on SOS in the literature are not extensive, and as a result, the information available in the public domain is fragmentary. This paper aims to review the subject matter in an as complete as possible manner based on the published information about the production, characterization and application of SOS wafers.