Effect of Ba Addition on Electrical Characteristics of Bi-Based ZnO Varistors
With the goal of fabricating low-breakdown-voltage varistors, the effect of adding Ba to ZnO varistors on the ZnO grain size was investigated. Grain growth of ZnO could be markedly promoted by adding both Ba and Bi. The maximum grain size was approximately 150 μm and the minimum varistor voltage was approximately 12 V/mm. However, it had relatively poor tolerance characteristics for electrical degradation. It is speculated that when adding both Ba and Bi to a Mn–Co-added ZnO varistor, it is necessary to form the molten phases of Ba and Bi to promote grain growth of ZnO. It is also conjectured that the growth of ZnO grains is not promoted when Ba and Bi do not coexist in the molten phase because Ba forms compounds with Mn independently with the addition of small amounts of Bi.
Shinobu Fujihara and Tadashi Takenaka
A. Fukumori et al., "Effect of Ba Addition on Electrical Characteristics of Bi-Based ZnO Varistors", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 445, pp. 241-244, 2010