Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation shows that the shell of a Unio douglasiae is a kind of bioceramic composite consisting of laminated aragonite and organic materials. The aragonite layers further consist of thin and long aragonite fibers. The aragonite fibers possess high density in the shell and their diameter is within nanometer scale. The mechanism of the high modulus and high strength of the shell were investigated based on the observed nanometer structure of the aragonite fibers and the rule of mixtures Young’s modulus as well as the Griffith criterion. It reveals that the high density and the nanometer scale of the aragonite fibers endow the shell with high modulus and fracture strength.