Some novel L-glutamate-based Schiff base compounds with glutamate segment and different substituted groups have been designed and synthesized from the reaction of aromatic L-glutamate amine with different aldehydes. It has been found that depending on the molecular structures and substituted groups, the formed Schiff base compounds showed different properties, indicating distinct regulation of molecular design. UV and IR data confirmed commonly the formation of Schiff base as well as aromatic substituted groups in molecular structures. Thermal analysis also clarified the structural influence of these compounds in different temperature ranges. The difference of thermal stability is mainly attributed to molecular structures, formation of Schiff base group and different substituted groups. These results indicated that the the special properties of Schiff base compounds could be regulated through the design of molecular structures and substituted groups, which leads to potential application in fields of functional material as well as catalyst.