Grain Size Effect in the Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Functional Oxides through Pressure Modification of the Spark Plasma Sintering Method
Through the use of a high-pressure modification of the spark plasma sintering method, it was possible to consolidate functional oxides (yttria- stabilized zirconia and doped ceria) to high densities and retain a grain size of < 20 nm. The role of the pressure on densification and on the grain size of the sintered samples was demonstrated. The pressure had a marked effect on density at relatively low temperature but an insignificant effect at relatively high temperature. It was found that when prepared with such small grain sizes, these oxides conduct protonically even at temperatures as low as room temperature. The dependence of the protonic conductivity is stronger dependence on grain size than what can be anticipated from a geometric consideration based on an increase in grain boundary area. This observation strongly suggests that factors other than an increase in grain boundary area play a role, a consideration that is being further investigated.
Takashi Goto, Yi-Bing Cheng and Takashi Akatsu
D.V. Quach et al., "Grain Size Effect in the Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Functional Oxides through Pressure Modification of the Spark Plasma Sintering Method", Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 484, pp. 107-116, 2011