In this study, we analyzed the effect of microstructure and oxygen content on the thermal conductivity of dense AlN ceramics by Slack’s plot, which plots the oxygen content estimated from the lattice parameter c versus the thermal resistivity, which is inverse of the thermal conductivity. The analyses were carried out for the AlN ceramics sintered with oxide additives such as Y2O3, Y2O3-Al2O3, or Y2O3-CaO-B. The data of AlN ceramics sintered with Y2O3 or Y2O3-CaO-B located on the plot of the relation between oxygen content in AlN lattice and thermal resistivity of AlN presented by Slack (Slack’s line) or Harris et al (Harris’s line), respectively. In contrast, the data of the sample sintered with Y2O3-Al2O3, which contains excess grain boundary phases, located above the Harris’s line. These results suggest that the thermal conductivities of AlN ceramics are influenced by not only the oxygen contents in the AlN lattices but also the contents of grain boundary phases.