Methodological Implications on Quantitative Studies of Cytocompatibility in Direct Contact with Bioceramic Surfaces
Cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation are important specific parameters to be evaluated on biocompatibility studies of candidate biomaterials for clinical applications. Several different methodologies have been employed to study, both qualitative and quantitatively, the direct interactions of ceramic materials with cultured mammal and human cells. However, while quantitatively evaluating cell density, viability and metabolic responses to test materials, several methodological challenges may arise, either by impairing the use of some widely applied techniques, or by generating false or conflicting results. In this work, we tested the inherent interference of different representative calcium phosphate ceramic surfaces (stoichiometric dense and porous hydroxyapatite (HA) and cation-substituted apatite tablets) on different tests for quantitative evaluation of osteoblast adhesion and metabolism, either based on direct cell counting after trypsinization, colorimetric assays (XTT, Neutral Red and Crystal Violet) and fluorescence microscopy. Cell adhesion estimation after trypsinization was highly dependent on the time of treatment, and the group with the highest level of estimated adhesion was inverted from 5 to 20 minutes of exposition to trypsin. Both dense and porous HA samples presented high levels of background adsorption of the Crystal Violet dye, impairing cell detection. HA surfaces also were able to adsorb high levels of fluorescent dyes (DAPI and phalloidin-TRITC), generating backgrounds which, in the case of porous HA, impaired cell detection and counting by image processing software (Image Pro Plus 6.0). We conclude that the choice for the most suitable method for cell detection and estimation is highly dependent on very specific characteristics of the studied material, and methodological adaptations on well established protocols must always be carefully taken on consideration.
Eyup Sabri Kayali, Gultekin Goller and Ipek Akin
J.A. Cortês et al., "Methodological Implications on Quantitative Studies of Cytocompatibility in Direct Contact with Bioceramic Surfaces", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 493-494, pp. 325-330, 2012