Designing, Processing and Properties of Advanced Engineering Materials

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Authors: Tomokazu Masuda, Hiroyuki Toda, Toshiro Kobayashi
Abstract: The strain rate sensitivity of a A6061-T6 aluminum is examined as a function of triaxial stress. The triaxial stress state is changed by changing the notch acuity of notched specimens. Under the high strain rate conditions, increasing triaxiality increases flow stress. Plastic constraint factor decreases in notched specimens under high strain rate conditions. Reduction-of-area in notched specimen increases with increasing strain rate. The relaxation of plastic constraint takes place under high strain rate in the notched specimens. The effects of triaxial stress and strain rate on the fracture surfaces are discussed.
Authors: Won Jong Nam, Young Bum Lee, Dong Hyuk Shin
Abstract: The large deformation at cryogenic temperature would be one of the effective methods to produce large bulk UFG materials. The effects of annealing temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheets received 85% reduction at cryogenic temperature were investigated for the annealing temperature of 150 ~ 300°C , in comparison with those at room temperature. Annealing of 5083 Al alloy deformed 85%, at 200°C for an hour, results in the considerable increase of tensile elongation without the great loss of strength and the occurrence of equiaxed grains less than 300nm in diameter.
Authors: Ryoji Nakamura, Kenta Takahashi, Masahiko Ikawa
Abstract: An unequal diameter twin roll caster was devised in order to increase productivity of the strip. This caster could cast the strip thicker than 6mm at the speed of 5m/min. The feature of this caster is that the lower roll was four times larger than the upper roll. The solidification length of the strip could be set longer easily than the conventional twin roll caster for aluminum alloy. Lowsolidification rate semisolid casting and low superheat casting were adopted. These were effective to increase the casting speed without decreasing the thickness of the strip. In the present study, the unequal diameter twin roll caster was designed and assembled. The test castings were operated and the characteristics of this caster were shown.
Authors: Ik Min Park, Il Dong Choi, Yong Ho Park
Abstract: The scroll compressor with high cooling efficiency and lower oscillating noise can be a candidate material for a part of car air conditioner, household air conditioner and so on. When Al alloy with high strength is used for scroll compressor instead of cast iron, rotation speed can be increased by weight reduction. To design Al alloy which has enough mechanical properties to replace cast iron, the effect of alloying elements, such as Si(13-15%), Cu(4-5%), and Mg(0.5-1%) and cooling rates on the mechanical properties of squeeze cast Al alloy was studied. The influence of Sr and P modification treatment on Si morphology was also studied. Aluminum alloy over 400MPa of tensile strength and 2% elongation was developed. Al scroll samples was fabricated by squeeze casting machine(UBE 800ton) with using 2 cavity mold. Flow-3D which is a three dimensional melt flow analysis program was used to find most proper mold design and optimum process conditions for squeeze casting before making samples. Relationship between secondary dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate was simulated by Flow-3D and compared with experimental results.
Authors: Jung Pyung Choi, Sang J. Lee, Eui Pak Yoon, W.Y. Yoon, M.H. Kim, K.H. Kim
Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of bubble on the primary Si size in Al-18wt.%Si alloy. The primary Si size observed was varied with bubble size and bubbling time in bubble process. The effect of the holding temperature of the melt in bubbling process was also investigated. In water model, as the injecting bubble size decreases, the residual bubble size in the water decreases and the residual bubble conservation time in the water increases. Also in the experiment of Al melt, the primary Si size decreases, as the injecting bubble size decreases and as the bubble processing time increases. Pore was observed at the center of primary Si. This pore was observed at many Si phases. So, this experiment suggests that the bubble can be used as nucleation sites of primary Si.
Authors: Jung Pyung Choi, Ki Bae Kim, Eui Pak Yoon
Abstract: In general, the element (Sr, Na, Sb, etc.) is used as a modifier of eutectic Si phase in the hypoeutectic Al-Si system. When these elements are added into the hypoeutectic Al-Si melt, the flake shaped Si phase transforms to fibrous shape and the size of Si phase is also decreased. In this study, the electromagnetic vibration is adopted for modifying eutectic Si phase and reducing its size. The higher the current density and frequency of electromagnetic vibration(EMV), the finer the size of eutectic Si phase. The tensile strength and elongation of EMVed alloy were highly improved. Measured twin probability of EMVed alloy at a frequency of 1000Hz was approximately six times as high as that of the normal alloy and a half of that of Sr modified alloy. The mechanism for the increase in twin density due to EMV during solidification could be supposed from the fact that the preferential growth along <112> in silicon was suppressed by preventing Si atom from attaching to the growing interface of Si phase and by changing the solid/liquid interfacial energy of silicon.
Authors: Seong Hee Lee, Chung Hyo Lee, Cha Yong Lim
Abstract: Two and six-layer stack accumulative roll bonding (ARB) processes were applied to commercial purity aluminum in order to investigate the effect of the stacking layer number on the mechanical properties. The initial thickness of the aluminum sheets for two and six-layer stack ARB was 1mm and 0.5mm, respectively. Two-layer stack ARB was performed by 50% reduction per cycle. For six-layer stack ARB, the six aluminum sheets were first stacked together and cold-roll-bonded by 50% reduction rolling, and then followed by four-pass rolling so that the final thickness was 0.5mm. The sheet was then cut to the six pieces of same length and the same procedure was repeated to the sheets. The tensile strength of the ARB processed specimens increases with the number of ARB cycles in both two and six layer stack ARB. The tensile strength is lower by the six-layer stack ARB than that by the two-layer stack ARB. The elongation slightly decreases with the number of the ARB cycles, regardless of the stacking layer number. TEM observation reveals that the grain size of the six-layer stack ARB is larger than that of the two-layer stack ARB. The effects of the number of the layers in stacking are explained by the redundant shear deformation.
Authors: H.J Kim, Eui Pak Yoon, Toshiro Kobayashi
Abstract: Primary Si particle size has been refined as Ca content of the melts decreased and cooling rate increased. A control of Ca content by the addition of CuCl2 to the melt was the most efficient in the refinement of primary Si particles. The minimum size of primary Si particles in this study was 15.0um when a residual content of Ca element in the alloy was 5ppm. Primary Si particle size was refined as primary Si crystallization temperature increased, which was attributed to the decrease of Ca content in the melts.
Authors: H.S. Kang, W.Y. Yoon, Kwon H. Kim, M.H. Kim, Eui Pak Yoon
Abstract: Microstructural variation is quantitatively characterized by measured undercooling. For neareutectic Al-13wt%Si alloys, microstructure transitions, which include a phase change from eutectic to primary α-Al dendrite plus eutectic and a morphological change from α-Al dendrite to equiaxed Al grains, were observed with increasing undercooling levels. For hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, microstructure transitions, which include a morphological change of primary and eutectic Si crystals, were also obtained quantitatively by increasing undercooling.
Authors: Young Ok Yoon, Hyung Ho Jo, Hoon Cho, Shae K. Kim, Young Jig Kim
Abstract: It has been generally known that the refining efficiency in zone refining process depends on travel rate, number of pass and distribution coefficient of impurity. In the present study, the effect of distribution coefficient on copper purification was investigated by zone refining process. A numerical model capable of predicting the solute redistribution at any stage of zone refining was proposed. The composition profiles of each segment at the given condition were compared with the results of micro hardness profiles. After zone refining, metallic elements were analyzed by GDOS (Glow Discharge Optical Spectroscopy) and GDMS (Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry). The impurities Ag, Pb, S and Ti, whose distribution coefficients are below 0.5, were concentrated at the finishing position. Cr, Mn, Si and Zn, whose distribution coefficients are between 0.5 and 1, were distributed irregularly. Fe and Ni, whose distribution coefficients are greater than 1, moved to the starting position. It was found that zone refining process was actually effective to remove impurities whose distribution coefficients are below 0.5. The experimental results agreed well with the simulation result.

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