Intercalation of Lithium Into Graphite as the First Step to Produce Carbon Nano-Tubes in an Electrochemical Way
The mechanism of lithium electrochemical reduction from its molten chloride at two different electrodes – glassy carbon and graphite – has been investigated by the cyclic voltammetry method in terms of so-called ‘thermodynamic’ or ‘material balance’ reversibility. It has been shown that the adsorption of lithium on glassy carbon and graphite plays an important role in the overall process of reduction, especially at polarization rates below 1 V/s. Lithium intercalation, probably due to small lithium atomic radius, practically does not have influence on the reversibility at these polarization rates. The process of lithium deposition on the electrodes used may be complicated by the dissolution of lithium in the melt in the whole range of polarization rates applied.
J. Sytchev et al., "Intercalation of Lithium Into Graphite as the First Step to Produce Carbon Nano-Tubes in an Electrochemical Way ", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 473-474, pp. 147-152, 2005