Experimental investigation of residual stresses after heat treatment and grinding processes in the production of ball bearing rings has been carried out. The residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction method utilizing chromium radiation, which has an average penetration depth of 5 μm incident on 100Cr6 (AISI-E52100) ball bearing steel. The process parameters of heat treatment and grinding processes were varied so as to represent the extreme values that can be applied in the respective processes. Hardness and percent retained austenite limit the heat treatment process parameters; while roundness, surface roughness and form the grinding process. Tensile surface residual stresses on the raceway of ball bearing rings changes to compression after grinding in both circumferential and axial directions. In grinding relatively higher compressive stresses were measured in axial direction compared to the circumferential direction. This experimental investigation also showed that the influence of heat treatment process parameters on the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses survived even after grinding process; i.e. heat treatment and grinding processes cannot be evaluated independently in process design for favourable residual stresses.