Mechanical and thermal treatments during the manufacturing process inevitably cause the accumulation of residual stresses in parts consisting of materials with complex microstructures. Neutron diffraction is particularly well suited to determine residual stress distributions within the bulk of the component. Due to the nature of a diffraction experiment an inextricable mixture of type I and II residual stresses is measured. The accumulation of type II stresses (microstresses) is strongly related to the microstructure. The impact of changes in the microstructure on neutron diffraction experiments has been investigated on Inconel 718 (IN718) samples.