In order to study on the effects of grinding of rail head on rolling contact fatigue of rails, residual stress measurements were conducted for rails processed under different grinding conditions. In this study, residual stresses in rails used for a service line were measured with the method of X-ray stress measurement. The triaxial stress analysis was conducted using a new method for an area detector type X-ray stress analysis proposed by the authors. Four grinding conditions were used to rail specimens. The distributions of residual stresses in the surface layer of the rail head were obtained. It was found that the tensile residual stresses were generated at the field-side of the ground rai1, and that the triaxial stress state was formed in the surface of the rail head widely.