A localized source of heat, such as that of laser beam, can provide a convenient means of producing a surface layer of altered microstructure. By using surface hardening treatment, wear resistance can be increased. Experiments were performed using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser under different processing conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray mapping (SEM) were employed to observe the effect of laser melting treatment on the microstructural properties of the samples. Depending on the selected laser treatment working conditions, different microstructures characteristics of surface melting can be achieved in the treated zone. Higher microhardness values were found at the treated area showing a superficial hardening of the sample and, consequently, an improvement of the wear resistance of these automotive alloys. The aim of this work is to find the optimal process parameters and to evaluate the characteristics of the laser superficial hardening (LSH) in a pearlitic gray iron and Al-Si alloy used in an automobile industry (bearing and piston materials in automotive industry).