Mechanism of Whisker Growth Suppression by Lead Co-Deposition on Electroplated Tin Film
This study investigated the effect of lead on the whisker growth of a tin film that was the electrodeposited on a phosphor bronze substrate. Subsequent FE-AES observation revealed that the whisker growth on the electrodeposited tin film varied depending on the morphology of the oxide film. The whisker growth was suppressed concomitantly with thinness or fragility of the oxide film formed on the tin deposits. The whisker growth was also suppressed concomitantly with the lead co-deposition in the tin deposits. In the Sn/Sn-Pb multilayer, because the lead between the tin film and the substrate was transferred to the surface, the whisker growth was also suppressed. This whisker growth suppression effect caused by the existence of a lead in the tin deposits was attributed to the oxide film thinning and embrittlement, depending on the lead transfer to the surface at room temperature.
T. Chandra, N. Wanderka, W. Reimers , M. Ionescu
M. Hino et al., "Mechanism of Whisker Growth Suppression by Lead Co-Deposition on Electroplated Tin Film", Materials Science Forum, Vols. 638-642, pp. 835-840, 2010