Experiments were conducted on AZ80 magnesium alloy by using a procedure of back pressure equal-channel angular pressing (BP-ECAP) in order to achieve submicron grain size. Microstructure was effectively refined by BP-ECAP. The gain size was found around 100~500 nm after 4 passes using both route A and route Bc at pressing temperatures of 200°C and 150 °C. The grain size was much finer in comparison with the same alloy but received conventional procedure of ECAP without back pressure, which maintains around 2~3 μm after 8 passes at relatively high temperatures. Compression test results showed the yield strength increased with increasing applied pass. In addition, the samples processed using route A had a increasing of yield strength more obvious than that in samples processed using route Bc. The highest yield strength from the sample pressed by route A at 150 °C was more than twice of the yield strength in the solution-treated and forged condition.