A nanostructured layer can be introduced on the surface of metallic materials by surface severe plastic deformation. A surface severe plastic deformation method-Supersonic Particles Bombarding (SSPB) was used to treat the anealled 40Cr steel. The surface and cross sectional microstructure of 40Cr steel after SSPB treatment were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy equipped with a Kikuchi line program to determine the grain orientations. Equiaxed nanocrystallites with random crystallographic orientation were obtained on the top surface of 40Cr steel after SSPB treatment. The surface microstructure was composed of nanostructure area, deformed area and matrix. Geometrically necessary boundaries and incidental dislocation boundaries were formed in the deformed ferrite at the distance to the surface of about 50-60μm, and the original coarse ferrite grain was divided into lamaller structure.