Combination of ECAP and Hydrostatic Extrusion for UFG Microstructure Generation in Nickel
An ultra-fine grained microstructure was obtained in high purity nickel by a combination of (a) equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) and (b) hydrostatic extrusion (HE) with a cumulative true strain of ~11.2. The resulting microstructure was examined by light and TEM microscopy. Mechanical properties have been measured by tensile and hardness tests. It was found that HE of ECAP-ed samples leads to a significant grain size refinement (from 330 to 160nm) and to an increase in microstructural homogeneity. SPD nickel, made by a combination of the ECAP and hydrostatic extrusion methods, has high strength and ductility (i.e.: YS=1120MPa and εf = 11%). The microstructure transformation was accompanied by a strength increase of 78% compared to ECAP alone. The results obtained fit well with the Hall-Petch relationship. A combination of ECAP and HE has achieved much better properties than either single process and show it to be a promising procedure for manufacturing bulk UFG nickel.
Witold Lojkowski and John R. Blizzard
M. Kulczyk et al., "Combination of ECAP and Hydrostatic Extrusion for UFG Microstructure Generation in Nickel", Solid State Phenomena, Vol. 114, pp. 51-56, 2006