Strength of nanostructured Cr-B and Cr-Ni alloys prepared by sputtering was related with grain size. The alloying of B or Ni to Cr reduces the grain size of the alloys. The increase in volume of grain boundaries or amorphous phase induced by alloying elements causes the departure of strength of nanostructured Cr alloys from the values estimated by the Hall-Petch relation. The formation and microhardness of Cr or Ti base amorphous alloys could be discussed by the chemical bonding between elements. The strength of dissimilar joints was dominated by the thickness and structure of the interfacial reaction zone between SiC and metal. The formation of interfacial reaction zone is discussed by the change of chemical potentials of elements between ceramics and metal.