Modeling and Simulation of VCSEL’s Turn-on Delay Based on Rate-Equations
Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) are a new generation of semiconductor lasers that have many advantages. In this paper, we present a comprehensive circuit-level VCSEL model that addresses the spatial and thermal behavior of VCSELs including turn on delay based on the rate equations without sacrificing the numerical efficiency demanded by the circuit-level simulation of optoelectronic systems. It is implemented into SPICE-like simulators to simulate the dc, ac and transient features (including turn-on delay and turn-off effect) of VCSELs. The simulated results exhibit good agreements with references.
X. Z. Shi et al., "Modeling and Simulation of VCSEL’s Turn-on Delay Based on Rate-Equations", Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 110-116, pp. 3364-3370, 2012