Vibration and radiated sound of Air Conditioning are harmful to environment and safeness. Air Conditioning Compressor is its major part bringing vibration. To lower noise of a compressor and to improve its sound characteristic, the paper probes into a method indirect measurement of vibration, which both vibration and radiation behavior is represented using acoustic signal and theory of radiation modes. The paper investigates on the basic coupling relationship between structural vibration and acoustic radiation by means of the real modal analysis theory. Besides, the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics of the rotary compressor are identified through the experiment method. According to the experimental results, between the vibration modes and the acoustic radiation modes have the comparability about the parameters. Therefore, this paper put forward a new method to the Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC), and provides the theoretical foundation of indirect measurement of vibration by using acoustic signal.