In the experiment, a new non-destructive method for discriminating three vigour of soybean seeds was developed by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with principal component and Mahalanobis distance model. The result show that NORMALIZE was the best pretreatment method of NORMALIZE, MSC, First Derivative and Second Derivative, the ideal spectral acquisition range of Soybean seed was 4000cm-1～6900cm-1, the cumulative contribution rate of the front four principal components reached 99.82%, it established the best model. The model could successfully complete the calibration samples and identify the prediction sample. This study proved that the use of near infrared spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition methods to rapid and nondestructive determination of seed vigor was indeed feasible. This study will offer a new method of testing soybean seed vigour with quick, non-destructive characters.