Through the benzene alkylation experiments with long chain olefin over solid acid catalysts activated at different temperature in the fixed-bed reactor, the kinetics of alkylation reaction and the deactivation kinetics of catalyst were established. The results showed that the activity and stability of catalyst decreased with increasing the activation temperature of catalysts. The reaction rate constant (k) and the deactivation rate constant (kd) of catalyst in kinetic models were also estimated through the optimization method, respectively. The acidity of catalyst was characterized by ammonia (NH3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), and the desorption kinetics of NH3 was obtained. The characterization results showed that the acid amount or the acid density gradually decreased, while the desorption activation energy or the acid strength increased, as the activation temperature of catalyst increased. In addition, the relationships between the acidity and catalytic performance of catalysts were correlated. It was found that the catalyst with higher acid amount and the lower acid strength on the surface exhibited the better catalytic performance and stability.