Silica-based aerogels doped with nano-ITO powder were synthesized using sol–gel process followed by supercritical drying. The main factors were studied including dosage of compling agent KH570 and ITO. The result shows that thermal radiation conductivity is 0.02659 W/(m•K) with ITO of 44.44% after 10 g ITO powder is modified with 1 mL KH570. The microstructure and physical characteristic of the SiO2–ITO aerogels were characterized by FTIR, SEM, TG-DSC and BET. Their specific surface was in the range of 513–775m2/g and their average pore size was mainly 20 nm. Nano-ITO powders are physically embedded by SiO2 aerogels.