One-dimensional Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanostructures (nanofibers) with an average diameter of 154 nm were fabricated by electrospinning. These nanofibers were characterized by X–ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic hysteresis loops were measured for randomly oriented and aligned Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibers, in comparison with the corresponding powder sample synthesized using the conventional sol-gel process. The differences in magnetic properties are observed between the Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibers and powders, and these differences mainly arise from the grain size and morphological variations between these two materials. In determining the magnetization ease axis for the aligned Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanofibers the shape anisotropy is slightly dominant competing with the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.