Under the pressure of resource and environmental constraints, China proposed to develop strategic emerging industries in order to transform economic development mode and response to the economic and environmental crises. Strategic emerging industries are a new concept. This paper firstly summarizes its content. Then we conduct a comparative analysis between China and some developed countries. We can get the following conclusions: China is not a leader country in the development of new emerging industries; China’s choice in strategic emerging industries is consistent with developed countries; Industry competitive, in essence, is the technology competition. Finally, we give some suggestions.