Cleaner production (CP) has been widely recognized as a useful approach to mitigate pollutions during industrial production. Small-to Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) contribute immensely to most developing economies and provide a vital source of employment and incomes for many millions of people in developing countries, but there is often disregard for the negative implications on the environment. The aim of the study was to assess barriers to cleaner production implementation in the small scale industries and recommend ways of addressing these. The research focuses upon some of the key environmental issues in the Zimbabwean small-to medium scale industry. An application of CP to two industries, namely the foundry and cement manufacturing industry is highlighted and the challenges faced during the implementation are discussed. A review of literature is also carried out to relate the challenges to other countries in order to have a global view and ascertain common inter-phases and the possibility of common solutions in the developing world. It was discovered that in the absence of external motivators, such as government regulation and community pressure, SMEs are less likely to adopt rapid advances in environmental performance. Lack of information also impacts negatively on efforts to inculcate a culture of environmental conscious manufacturing. There is a great need to actively inform the SMEs enterprises on the merits and demerits of not employing environmentally friendly methods of production. The other big barrier is the lack of expertise to champion the implementation of a companywide CP programme. Changes in systems and technology may also make certain employees obsolete, and therefore induce organisational structural protection of the existing system.