Abstract: In this work, the effect of calcination temperatures on the microstructure and phase formation of Ba(Zr0.25Ti0.75)O3 (BZT) powders were investigated. The BZT powders were prepared via the solid state reaction method under various calcination temperatures. It was found that the second phases such as BaCO3, ZrO2, BaZrO3 and Ba2ZrO4 existed in samples with calcination temperature below 1200 oC. Homogeneity and a highly pure perovskite phase of the BZT powders were obtained with calcination condition at 1300 oC for 4 h. Lattice parameter a and the percentage of cubic perovskite phase tended to increase with increasing calcination temperatures. The TG-DTA results corresponded to the XRD investigation. The microstructures of calcined powders exhibited an almost-spherical morphology and had a porous agglomerated form in all samples. The average particle sizes were increased from 0.2 to 1.1mµ when calcination temperatures were increased from 800 to 1350 oC.
Abstract: (Pb0.925Ba0.075)TiO3 (PBT) ceramics have been prepared using a mixed oxide technique. The phase formation and morphology were studied in detail via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pure tetragonal perovskite structure was discovered with calcination temperatures above 800 oC. The percentage of perovskite phase and particle size tends to increase with the increasing of calcination temperatures. The PBT ceramics sintered at various temperatures belonged to a pure tetragonal perovskite phase. The average grain sizes increased from 0.90 to 6.44 µm with the increase of sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200 oC. The highest density was obtained from the sample that sintered at 1150 and 1200 oC
Abstract: In this work, barium zirconium titanate (BZT) ceramics were fabricated by using a ultrasonic ball milling technique. BZT with the ratio of BaCO3:ZrO2:TiO2 was 1:0.05:0.95 was mixed in ultrasonic ball milling for 1, 3 and 4.5 hr and calcined at temperature of 1000 °C. Phase formation of BZT powder was investigated using XRD technique. Moreover, physical and electrical properties were examined. It was found that the tetragonal structure of BZT can be observed. Particle size of sample powder obtained from new milling technique is smaller than that of powder obtained from conventional mixed oxide method. Moreover, this new technique also requires the less time fabrication. Furthermore, the dielectric properties are increased with milling time and sintering temperature.
Abstract: Ceramics in the system 0.05(Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.15Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.8Pb(Zr1/2Ti1/2)O3 (0.05PZN-0.15PNN-0.8PZT) were synthesized via the columbite method. Ferroelectric properties of the samples prepared by different sintering conditions were investigated. The mechanical property of the ceramics was also determined. The best ferroelectric properties were observed for the sample sintered at 1250°C.
Abstract: The effects of alumina nanoparticles on the properties of PbZrO3 ceramics were investigated. The samples were prepared by a simple conventional mixed oxide method involving calcination and sintering temperatures of 800 oC and 1200 oC, respectively. Single-phase lead zirconate was observed in X-ray powder diffraction patterns for all the samples. The relationship between the Al2O3 content, the dielectric properties and Knoop hardness were determined. The results indicate that the additive affects Curie temperatures and the shape of the Curie peak, implying a chemical reaction takes place with the matrix during high-temperature processing. Hardness values increase for additions up to 1 vol % Al2O3.
Abstract: In this research work, the investigation of the morphotropic phase boundary, physical properties and electrical properties of lead- free piezoelectric materials of bismuth sodium titanium oxide: (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 (BNT) and potassium niobium oxide : KNbO3 (KN) in the ceramic system of (1-x)BNT- xKN where x= 0.00, 0.03, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10 and 0.15 by modified mixed oxide method was carried out. The BNT and KN powders were prepared separately using calcination technique with optimum calcination temperature for producing both BNT and KN powders of about 800°C. XRD results revealed that the BNT-KN ceramics with low KN content of x less than 0.05 contain ferroelectric perovskite phase with rhombohedral symmetries while the higher KN content ceramics have mixed symmetries between rhombohedral and orthorhombic. From the evidences including phases, microstructures and dielectric data of the BNT-KN ceramics, it may be assumed that the morphotropic phase boundary may be at around the composition of x = 0.05.
Abstract: Dielectric glass and glass-ceramics were derived from Na2O-Nb2O5-Al2O3-SiO2 system. Small amount of TiO2 were also introduced into glass compositions to study crystallization behavior of the glass with present of this nucleating agent. Conventional melt-quenching technique was employed for a glass production and the selected bulk glass samples were subjected to the heat-treatment process at appropriate temperature. After six different glass compositions were produced, and by observation with necked eyes, all obtained glass samples are in light brown color and some samples were opaque due to crystallization took place during quenching. Phase identification through XRD patterns show that there were 3 phases, NaNbO3, NaNbO8 and a sodium aluminum silicate compound, found in those opaque glass samples. NaNbO3 is a predominant phase in all samples. Fortunately, clear transparent glass was obtained from the composition with no TiO2 addition. Heat treatment of this glass did not induce phase change, three aforementioned phases still present. Increasing heat treatment time promoted a higher of observed intensity of NaNbO3. But the NaNbO3 crystalline size was not significantly developed with time. The dielectric response of the NaNbO3 crystals in the glass-ceramics samples are influenced by presence of other crystalline phases.
Abstract: It is well known that acceptor and donor doping results in opposite ferroelectric aging effects; however, the aging effects in hybrid-doped (acceptor+donor) has remained unclear. Thus, the aging effect of dielectric and ferroelectric properties in Fe3+/Nb5+ hybrid-doped BaTiO3 ceramics was investigated in this research. The concentration of acceptor dopant (Fe3+) was fixed at 1 mol% while that of donor dopant (Nb5+) was varied from 0.5-2.0 mol%. XRD technique was used to study the phase morphology. Before measuring dielectric and ferroelectric aging effect, all samples were deaged at 250 °C for 1 hour. The results showed that the dielectric properties of all deaged samples have decreased exponentially with time. The deaged samples with 0.5 and 1.0 mol% of Nb5+ obviously showed double hysteresis loop while that with higher concentration of Nb5+ (1.5-2.0 mol%) showed the rectangular (normal) hysteresis loop. The explanations based on the effect of defect dipole were discussed.
Abstract: A perovskite-type phase of Bismuth Ferrite, BiFeO3, powder was synthesized by a solid-state reaction via a rapid vibro-milling technique. The effect of calcination condition on the phase formation, and characterization of BiFeO3 powder was investigated. The formation of the BiFeO3 phase investigated as a function of calcination conditions by TG–DTA and XRD. Morphology, particle size and chemical composition have been determined via a combination of SEM and EDX techniques and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to characterize the structures and magnetic properties of prepared samples. The rapid vibro-milling is employed for the first time in this work as a significant time-saving method to obtain single-phase BiFeO3 powders.
Abstract: A perovskite-type phase of solid solution of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 powders were synthesized by a solid-state reaction via a rapid vibro-milling technique. The effect of calcination condition on the phase formation, and characterization of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 powders were investigated. The formation of the BiFeO3-BaTiO3 phase investigated as a function of calcination conditions by TG–DTA and XRD. Morphology, particle size and chemical composition have been determined via a combination of SEM and EDX techniques and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) was used to characterize the structures and magnetic properties of prepared samples. The rapid vibro-milling is employed for the first time in this work as a significant time-saving method to obtain single-phase BiFeO3-BaTiO3 powders.