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Paper Title Page
Abstract: A series of azo disperse dyes was synthesized using 4-nitro aniline and 2-chloro-4-nitro aniline as diazo components. The coupling components were N,N-diethyl aniline, N,N-bis-β-hydroxyethyl aniline, N,N-bis-β-acetoxyethyl aniline, N,N-diethyl-m-toluidine, N,N-bis-β-hydroxyethyl-m-toluidine and N,N-bis-β-acetoxyethyl-m-toluidine. The structures of the synthesized dyes were confirmed by TLC, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The spectroscopic properties of the dyes when dissolved in the organic solvents viz. ethyl acetate and methyl benzoate, were investigated. The absorption spectra of the dyes showed a bathochromic shift when the polarity of the solvents increased. In addition, the substituent groups on the dye structures influenced the spectroscopic properties of the dyes. The dyeing properties of the dyes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) and poly(lactic acid) fabrics were also studied. The dyes exhibited a slight difference in shade on the two polyester fabrics. Heat and light fastness properties of the dyed fabrics were also examined.
Abstract: Glasses with composition xBi2O3:(100-x)B2O3 with 30x70 (in mol%) have been prepared using the normal melt-quench technique and investigated their properties. The optical absorption spectra of the glasses have been measured in the wavelength range 400-700 nm. It has been found that, the fundamental absorption edge has been identified from the optical absorption spectra. The values of optical band gap were decreased and the molar volumes were increased, with the addition of Bi2O3, due to the formulation of non-bridging oxygen (NBOs).
Abstract: Nanocrystalline aluminium titanium nitride (AlTi3N) thin films were deposited on Si (100) wafers and grids by reactive magnetron co-sputtering technique using titanium and aluminium targets. The films were sputtered in Ar and N2 mixture at a constant flow rate under different conditions of deposition time ranging from 15 to 60 minutes. The crystal structure was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and microstructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicated that the formation of polycrystalline AlTi3N with the orthorhombic structure and the development of crystal structure was observed by varied the deposition time. The microstructure of films was good according to the XRD results. On the other hand, after annealed the films at 500OC in the air for 1 hour, the crystal structure did not change that exposed the stable structure of AlTi3N films.
Abstract: Mechanochemical processing of zirconium oxychloride and yttrium chloride precursors with lithium carbonate has been used to synthesis ultrafine powders of yttria-stabilized zirconia. The purposes of this work are to synthesis 8% mol yttria-stabilized zirconia powder via a mechanochemical process and to study the effect of LiCl as an inert diluent on agglomerate size of ultrafine powders. 8% mol yttria-stabilized zirconia powder was prepared from zirconium oxychloride and 8 %mol yttrium chloride precursors with lithium carbonate by using planetary ball mill and heat treatment. Chemical reaction between reactant mixtures occurs during post-milling heat treatment at low temperature to form composite powder. The products of this reaction consist of ultrafine powders embedded within LiCl as soluble salt by-product. The ultrafine powder is then recovered by removing the salt through a washing procedure. The powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and particle size analysis. The results indicated that 8% mol yttria-stabilized zirconia crystal structure depends on post-milling heat treatment temperatures. The structure of yttria-stabilized zirconia is transformed to a tetragonal form at 400 oC and 500 oC. Furthermore, it tends to form a cubic structure at 600 oC. However, agglomerate size of ultrafine powders also depends on the concentration of lithium chloride as an inert diluent and the washing procedure. Primary particle size of ultrafine powders is 30 nm.
Abstract: The potential of using hydrogels encapsulated with a water-soluble calcium salt, Ca(NO3)2 for the remediation and management of sodic soil, a degenerate soil condition associated with irrigation of recycled water was investigated. Environmentally friendly hydrogel, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) was synthesised from the monomer, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). HEMA was also used to copolymerise with another monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidinone (NVP) to form a more hydrophlic hydrogel. Starch and glucose were incorporated in certain hydrogels with the intention of evaluating their biodegradability in soils since starch and glucose would serve as nutrients for microbials in soils. Delivery of calcium ions embedded in hydrogels were investigated on sodic and non-sodic clay loam under saturated condition. It was found that the optimum hydrogel for this application was the copolymer that contained HEMA and NVP in equal mole ratio.
Abstract: Electrochemical polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were involved to study the corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy 2024 in 2.5M H2SO4 solution by 4-amino-5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazole-3-thiol (APTT) at 30 ○C. Potentiodynamic polarization results were comparable with those obtained by impedance measurements. Results showed that APTT performed as inhibitor for aluminum alloy 2024 corrosion in 2.5M H2SO4 solution and it attains an efficiency of more than 32% at 4×10- 4 M at 30 ○C . The inhibition efficiency increases with an increase in the concentration of APTT. Polarization curves show that APTT is a mix-type inhibitor. Changes in impedance parameters (charge transfer resistance, Rct, and double layer capacitance, Cdl) were indicative of adsorption of APTT on the aluminum alloy 2024 surface, leading to the formation of protective films
Abstract: As a new processing method for the production of modified starch, microwave heating was applied to native arrowroot starch. The effect of processing parameter on the sustained release properties of the obtained modified starches was investigated. The modified starch was blended with a model drug, theophylline, and then compressed into tablet using hydraulic press at a pressure of 19.6 kN for 30 s. The physical properties as well as drug release behavior of the compressed tablets were investigated. The results showed that the physical properties of different modified starches were about the same. The modified arrowroot starch displayed better sustained release properties than native starch. The modified arrowroot starch, which subjected to microwave heating using high level of water content, long heating time and high microwave power, demonstrated promising properties as hydrophilic matrix excipients for sustained release tablets.
Abstract: The aim of our study was to evaluate the applicability of yam (Dioscorea sp.) starch and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) starch as suspending agents in suspension. Paracetamol was used as a model drug because of its low solubility. It was found that the optimal concentration as suspending agent in paracetamol suspension was in the range of 7-8% for yam starch and 5-6% for arrowroot starch. All formulations were stable within the period of study with pH of 5.4-6.9. These results were comparable to those obtained from the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (sodium CMC) which is a common suspending agent. It could be concluded that yam starch and arrowroot starch showed suspending activity in paracetamol suspension and could be applied as commercial suspending agent.
Abstract: The photocatalytic reaction of polyoxotungstate, [BW12O40]5- and [SiW12O40]4-, led to the generation of hydrogen gas from biomass such as a sugarcane juice and tapioca starch under irradiation of UV light. These photoreactions were investigated in the pH dependence. The results showed that hydrogen was obtained at 2
Abstract: Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) based nanocomposites were prepared by mixing ENR latex (epoxide content of 35 mole%) with silica nanoparticles (SiO2). SiO2 were previously treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). Morphological and mechanical properties of ENR/SiO2 composites were investigated. The dispersion of SiO2 in ENR matrix, which was characterized by SEM, indicated that the treated SiO2 exhibited better dispersion than that of the untreated SiO2. Moreover, it has been found that the modified SiO2 with either APS or MPS gave much significant reinforcing effect than the untreated one. However, the treatment of SiO2 nanoparticles with MPS resulted in better interfacial interaction when the APS treatment was compared.