Fabrication of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics as Synthetic Cortical Bone Graft
The aim of this study was to fabricate porous Hydroxyapatite/Tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) bioceramics with an adequate degree of interconnected porosity combined with optimal mechanical properties. Porous HA/TCP bioceramics with interconnected porosity and the controlled pore sizes necessary to simulate natural bone tissue morphology were fabricated by a novel technique of vacuum impregnation of reticulated polymeric foams with ceramic slip. By varying the characteristics of the slips and using foams of different pores per inch (ppi), samples of porous HA/TCP, blocks and granules, with a wide range of pore sizes were successfully manufactured. Functionally gradient materials (FGM) with porosity gradients were also made and no weakness was found at the interface. The pore size of the HA/TCP bioceramics was in the range of 197 – 254 µm (for 20 ppi foam), 143 – 182 µm (for 30 ppi foam) and 105 – 127 µm (for 45 ppi foam). The compressive strengths and the apparent densities of the HA/TCP samples were in the range of 30 –170 MPa and 2.34 – 2.76 g/cm3 respectively. These results indicate that it is possible to manufacture open pore HA/TCP bioceramics with compressive strengths comparable to human bone which could be of clinical interest.
Panjian Li, Kai Zhang and Clifford W. Colwell, Jr.
Y.H. Hsu et al., "Fabrication of Porous Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics as Synthetic Cortical Bone Graft", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 284-286, pp. 305-308, 2005