Three types of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based composite cements containing 40− 56 wt% micron-sized titania (titanium oxide) particles, designated ST2-40c, ST2-50c, and ST2-56c, were developed as bone substitutes for vertebroplasty, and evaluated for their mechanical, setting, and biological properties. In animal experiments, ST2-50c and ST2-56c were implanted into rat tibiae and solidified in situ. Their biological properties were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks after implantation. Compressive strength, bending strength, and bending modulus increased with increasing titania content. Peak temperature during the setting reaction decreased as the filler content increased. ST2-56c had direct contact with bone over larger areas than ST2-50c at 6 and 12 weeks. Data from the present study indicated that ST2-56c is a good candidate as a bone substitute for vertebroplasty.