Advanced Nondestructive Evaluation I

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Authors: Young Joo Kim, Bong Young Ahn, Ki Bok Kim, Young Gil Kim
Abstract: Conventional eddy current bobbin probes, multi-pancake and/or rotating pancake probes, and transmit-receive eddy current probes are currently utilized in testing metal tubing. Each method has respective strengths and weaknesses. This paper proposes another eddy current probe with new features. The structure is designed to be sensitive to circumferential cracks, which are not easily detected with ordinary bobbin coil probes. The directions of the magnetic field and the eddy current around the coil were considered in design of the probe structure. Signals of these probes from the artificial defects were acquired and analyzed. Experimental results show that the developed probes are more sensitive to circumferential defects than comparable ordinary bobbin probes. In addition, the new probes are insensitive to axial defects. By employing both the new probes and ordinary bobbin probes, more reliable ECT can be performed.
Authors: Jung Seob Hyun, Gee Wook Song, Young Shin Lee
Abstract: A more accurate life prediction for gas turbine blade takes into account the material behavior under the complex thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) cycles normally encountered in turbine operation. An experimental program has been carried out to address the thermo-mechanical fatigue life of the IN738LC nickel-base superalloy. High temperature out-of-phase and in-phase TMF experiments in strain control were performed on superalloy materials. Temperature interval of 450-850 was applied to thermo-mechanical fatigue tests. The stress-strain response and the life cycle of the material were measured during the test. The mechanisms of TMF damage is discussed based on the microstructural evolution during TMF. The plastic strain energy based life pediction models were applied to the stress-strain history effect on the thermo-mechanical fatigue lives.
Authors: Ik Keun Park, Hyun Mook Kim, Tae Sung Park, Yong Kwon Kim, Yong Sang Cho, Won Joon Song
Abstract: It's not easy to detect the defects in fillet weldment which is widely used in various building structures and power plants just with nondestructive inspection due to its complex geometrical shape and difficult access. But it's easy to detect the cracks on the surface or just below the surface of fillet weldment heel part if surface SH-wave, among ultrasonic wave modes, is applied. The traditional ultrasound inspection using surface SH-wave is usually a contact method using piezoelectric transducer, so it's not suitable for a field application because the reliability of inspection varies depending on field environments such as couplant, contact pressure and pre-process, etc. Therefore, the necessity for non-contact ultrasound inspection is increasing. This study proposes non-contact ultrasound inspection method using EMAT (electro-magnetic acoustic transducer), and presented non-contact ultrasound inspection method for fillet weldment through experimental verification.
Authors: Chang Su Woo, Wan Doo Kim
Abstract: Heat-aging effects on the material properties and fatigue life prediction of natural rubber were experimentally investigated. The rubber specimens were heat-aged in an oven at the temperature ranging from 50oC to 100oC for a period ranging from 1 day to 90days. Fatigue life prediction methodology of vulcanized natural rubber was proposed by incorporating the finite element analysis and fatigue damage parameter determined from fatigue test. Fatigue life prediction equation effectively represented by a single function using the Green-Lagrange strain. Predicted lives are in a good agreement with the experimental lives within a factor of two
Authors: Seung Hoon Nahm, Jong Seo Park, In Hyun Chung, Kwon Sang Ryu, Am Kee Kim
Abstract: Many researchers have been interested in the nondestructive measurement methods for examining the microstructural changes and components damage in order to assure the safe operation of steel structure. It has been recognized that the techniques based on magnetic measurement offered a great potential because of high susceptibility to the change of several metallurgical factors. In this study, the effect of isothermal heat treatments, which simulate the microstructural changes observed in reactor vessel material at the service temperature, on the magnetic properties was investigated. 2.25Cr-1Mo steel specimens with several different kinds of aging were prepared by an isothermal heat treatment at three different temperature levels. Magnetic property such as coercive force was measured. The coercive force at room temperature monotonously increased with the extent of degradation of the material. The correlation between the measured magnetic property and the mechanical properties was studied. In addition, the applicability of magnetic properties measurements to the evaluation for toughness degradation of reactor vessel was discussed.
Authors: Jong Seo Park, Un Bong Baek, Seung Hoon Nahm, Sang In Han, Song Chun Choi
Abstract: The nondestructive evaluation technique for the material degradation is necessary because of the limitation of conventional destructive methods. In this study, an ultrasonic velocity measurement method was attempted for the estimation of the creep damage of degraded modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. The specimens with seven different kinds of aging periods were prepared by an isothermal heat treatment at 690 . The ultrasonic velocity was measured by an immersion method. The correlation between the measured ultrasonic velocity and tensile properties were studied. The ultrasonic velocity has an declining tendency with the increase of heat treatment time. A correlation between the ultrasonic velocity and aging parameter were established, which allows one to estimate the material degradation of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel.
Authors: Un Bong Baek, Jong Seo Park, Seung Hoon Nahm, Hyuck Mo Lee
Abstract: In spite of frequent defect in industrial boilers, life assessment or diagnostic method for them has not been studied. In this research, SB410 carbon steel used in industrial boilers is simulated with artificial aging heat treatment. To do qualitative life assessment, differences in micro-structures and hardness of SB410 by the degradation time are studied. In addition, variation in material properties by aging was observed with the tensile test at room temperature and 179 °C and changes in ductile to brittle transition temperature was observed with the charpy impact test performed at several test temperature.
Authors: Hyung Ick Kim, Yong Huh, Jae Sil Park, Chang Sung Seok
Abstract: The safety and reliability of industrial machineries and structures used in various, and severe conditions has become an increasing concern. This study proposes ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) evaluation technique by the sub-sized specimen test to prevent cleavage fracture. Four classes of the thermally aged 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V specimens were prepared. The fracture toughness tests were performed on sub-sized specimens both at room and low temperatures. The results of the fracture toughness tests were analyzed to obtain the DBT behaviours of the specimen materials
Authors: Jae Sil Park, Chang Sung Seok
Abstract: In order to analyze the elastic-plastic fracture behavior of a structure, the fracture resistance curve of the material should be known. However, it is difficult to evaluate the fracture characteristics with an experiment on the piping system. Instead, the fracture toughness obtained from standard specimen tests is used to analyze the structure and assess the fracture characteristics of the total structure. It is known that toughness data from the standard specimen test are conservative to predict fracture behavior of the real piping. Thus the fracture resistance curve by the fracture test of the real scaled pipe specimen would be applied to the integrity evaluation for the piping system. However, it is not only difficult to perform but also very expensive to perform full-scale pipe tests. The objective of this thesis is to propose a method to estimate the fracture resistance curve of a pipe from the result of standard specimen fracture test. To estimate the fracture resistance curve for a pipe specimen, load – load-line displacement records of a standard specimen were transformed to those of the pipe specimen. The load ratio method was proposed in order to calculate the crack length from load – crack mouth opening displacement records for the pipe specimen. To prove the validity of this estimation results, fracture tests for pipe specimens were performed. Consequently the applicability of the proposed method was investigated by comparing estimated results with tested results.
Authors: Asa Prateepasen, Chalermkiat Jirarungsatean, Pongsak Tuengsook
Abstract: In this paper acoustic emission (AE) was implemented to detect and study the corrosion on austenitic stainless steel grade AISI 304. Two tests were conducted at room temperature using an acidic 30% Chloride solution in passive tests procedure and 3% NaCl solution in electrochemical process. From the experimental works, it appeared that AE signals could be detected during corrosion. Data were studied in time and frequency domain to characterize and to find out the relation between AE parameter and corrosion. In addition the source of generated acoustic signals and corrosive mechanism in the different corrosive environment condition were discussed.

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