Progresses in Fracture and Strength of Materials and Structures

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Authors: Qiu Ming Zhang, Xiao Dong He, Yao Li
Abstract: Quartzite microcrystallite glass ceramics is one of the most promising machinable ceramic materials due to its many outstanding properties. The density of quartzite microcrystallite glass ceramics is smaller than the aluminum alloy and its thermal conductivity approaches to the zirconia and its elastic module is also very small; All these advantages meet the requirements for structural components to work at higher temperature; Compressive properties of quartzite microcrystallite glass ceramics had been studied at room temperature and 500°C in this paper; The specimens had been aged at 1000°C for 5, 10, 20, 30 hours, respectively. Through SEM observations of the fracture surface of the specimens, the microstructural changes had been determined; The tests showed: the compressive property of the machinable glass ceramic declined as the ageing time increasing; but the compressive property of the specimen aged for 10 hours was inferior to that aged for 20 hours; Then compressive property declined as the ageing time increasing. The SEM observation indicated that with the extend of ageing time, the grains grew bigger and microporous and microcracks increased in the specimens; Comparing the compressive property at room temperature with that at 500°C, one found that the change of compressive property was very small when the ageing time was the same; With the extend of ageing time, the curve of the compressive property changed from smooth curves to broken lines.
469
Authors: Hu Chen, Jian Ming Gong, Shan Tung Tu, Lu Yang Geng
Abstract: The brazed plate-fin structure is the key component of a compact plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE). The thermal deformation and residual stresses induced by vacuum brazing may bring negative effects on the quality and the life of the plate-fin structure. Thus it is important to optimize the brazing parameters in order to minimize such effects. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element analysis for determining the thermal deformation and residual stresses of a three layers of stainless steel plate-fin structure fabricated by nickel-based brazing. The feature of thermal deformation and residual stresses distribution are discussed. The effects of three major factors including brazing temperature, clamping pressure and filler metal on the thermal deformation and residual stresses are investigated respectively.
473
Authors: Rui Chen Yang, Z. Li, Kui Chen
Abstract: The Larson-Miller parameter (LMP=T(C+log t)) with the determined C-value is suitable to describe the high-temperature ageing behaviour of pearlitic heat resistant steels, such as 12Cr1MoV with C of 20.62, and 15CrMo 20.30. The heat strength parameter Pc was proposed as one property of materials, and heat processing factor P as temperature-time processing parameter. In addition, the relationship between Pc and P was discussed. Then, based on the calculation of valence electron structures by the Empirical Electron Theory of Solid and Molecules (EET), the physical nature and microscopic meaning of C constant in LMP were analyzed, including the effects of carbon content on C-value.
477
Authors: Yuan Jun Sun, Guo Jun Zhang, Chao Zuo, Jian Feng Wei, Jun Sun
Abstract: The oxide lanthanum dispersion strengthened molybdenum alloys were prepared by proprietary powder metallurgy technology, in which the Mo-La2O3 powders were prepared by liquid-liquid doping process which the oxide lanthanum was added to ammonium bi-molybdate solutions as aqueous solutions of La(NO3)3 and liquid-solid doping process which the oxide lanthanum was added to molybdenum oxide solid particles as aqueous solutions of La(NO3)3, respectively. The microstructure and tensile properties of the molybdenum alloys were investigated at room temperature. The results show that the molybdenum alloys all have fine molybdenum grains, and the molybdenum alloy prepared by liquid-solid doping process mainly contain fine oxide lanthanum particles of submicron and nano-sized while the alloy prepared by liquid-liquid doping process mainly contain nano-sized fine oxide lanthanum particles. The molybdenum alloys prepared by liquid-liquid doping process have higher yield strength and ductility than yield-solid doping process. The results of strengthen mechanism analysis show that the high strength of the molybdenum alloys can be advisablely explained by the fine grain strengthening and particles dispersion strengthening mechanism through the Hall–Petch relationship and Orowan model.
481
Authors: Y.M. Baik, K.S. Kim
Abstract: Crack growth in compact specimens of type 304 stainless steel is studied at 538oC. Loading conditions include pure fatigue loading, static loading and fatigue loading with hold time. Crack growth rates are correlated with the stress intensity factor. A finite element analysis is performed to understand the crack tip field under creep-fatigue loading. It is found that fatigue loading interrupts stress relaxation around the crack tip and cause stress reinstatement, thereby accelerating crack growth compared with pure static loading. An effort is made to model crack growth rates under combined influence of creep and fatigue loading. The correlation with the stress intensity factor is found better when da/dt is used instead of da/dN. Both the linear summation rule and the dominant damage rule overestimate crack growth rates under creep-fatigue loading. A model is proposed to better correlate crack growth rates under creep-fatigue loading: 1 c f da da da dt dt dt Ψ −Ψ     =         , where Ψ is an exponent determined from damage under pure fatigue loading and pure creep loading. This model correlates crack growth rates for relatively small loads and low stress intensity factors. However, correlation becomes poor as the crack growth rate becomes large under a high level of load.
485
Authors: Motoki Sakaguchi, Masakazu Okazaki
Abstract: Behavior of thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) failure of a single crystal Ni-base superalloy, CMSX-4, was studied and, compared with isothermal low-cycle fatigue (ILCF) of it. Strain-controlled TMF and ILCF tests of CMSX-4 were carried out under various test conditions, where the experimental variables were strain rates, strain ratio, test temperature and the range, and strain/temperature phase angle. At first it was shown from the experiments that the TMF and LCF failures associated with some noteworthy characteristics were rarely seen in the traditional pollycrystalline heat-resistant alloys. These phenomena could be explained inadequately, on the basis of the macroscopic parameters and the historical failure criteria; e.g., Manson-Coffin law and Ostergren approach. A new micromechanics model is proposed to predict the TMF and LCF lives, based on the Eshelby's theory.
491
Authors: Hiroyuki Waki, Akira Kobayashi
Abstract: Plasma sprayed CoNiCrAlY coating can prevent oxidation and corrosion of turbine blades in a gas turbine plant. Cracking and delamination of coatings are affected by the residual stresses in the coatings. In this study, the arising mechanism of residual stress in the plasma sprayed coating was discussed. The residual stresses in CoNiCrAlY coatings were measured by X-ray diffraction method. The coatings were deposited by either low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) or atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Each elastic constant which was used for determining the X-ray stress constant was mechanically measured by a bending test. Two kinds of substrates were prepared for each coating in order to examine the effect of thermal expansion coefficient of a substrate. Results were as follows. The residual stresses of the coatings on steel substrates were tensile. On the other hand, the residual stresses on stainless substrates were lower than those on steel substrates. Arising mechanism of the residual stresses can be explained by both the linear expansion coefficient and the range of changing temperature. It was also found that the absolute residual stresses were affected by the spraying powder size and increased with a decrease of the spraying powder size. It was principally caused by the difference in the elastic constants.
495
Authors: Jae Hoon Kim, Duck Hoi Kim, Kyoung Joo Kim, Woo Sung Sim, Young Shin Lee, Won Shik Park
Abstract: In this study, failure behavior of hot gas casing for gas turbine was investigated. The microstructure and damage mechanism of serviced hot gas casing were examined. Also low cycle fatigue tests of the Inconel 617 super alloy is used for structural material of hot gas casing were performed. To predict the low cycle fatigue life, Coffin-Manson and strain energy density methods were used.
499
Authors: Shu Qiang Ding, Yu Ping Zeng, Dong Liang Jiang
Abstract: An oxidation bonding process was developed to fabricate oxidation-bonded porous silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics from α-Si3N4 powder in air at 1100-1400oC. Si3N4 particles are bonded by the oxidation-derived silica (SiO2) and the pores derive from the stack of Si3N4 particles and the release of N2 and SiO gas during the sintering. The microstructure of oxidation-bonded porous Si3N4 ceramics was observed. Moreover, the fracture mechanism was analyzed. Effects of the bonding phases and pores on the flexural strength were investigated. Oxidation-bonded porous Si3N4 ceramics with high flexural strength was obtained by restraining the crystallization of amorphous silica and forming the well-developed necks between Si3N4 particles.
503
Authors: Liang Zheng, Shu Suo Li, Cheng Bo Xiao, Ding Zhong Tang, Chen Qing Gu
Abstract: In this investigation, 3wt.% Ru was added to a low Cr and high W content superalloy with a nominal composition of Ni-10Co-1.5Cr-2.0Mo-1.0Nb-5.5Al-1.2Ti-0.1C-0.02B (wt.%) and both the Ru-free and the Ru-bearing alloys were directionally solidified. The multi-step heat treatment, thermal exposure and stress rupture test were performed. The results indicate that Ru is a weak positive segregation element (k’=Cinterdendrite / Cdendrite= 1.03). The solubility of Ru in γ phase is 30% higher than that of in γ' phase. Ru hardly enters into MC carbides, but can effectively retard the formation of M6C carbides. Ruthenium reduces the amount of eutectic (γ+γ'), decreases solid solution temperature of γ' phase, and promotes the rafting tendency of γ/γ' at elevated temperatures. Ru-bearing alloy possesses rather higher life at 1100°C/118MPa due to decrease of the film-like M6C carbides. The addition of Ru can inhibit the formation of M6C and eutectic γ', which hinder the initiation and propagation of cracks.
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