Bioceramics 20

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Authors: T. Watanabe, Kimitoshi Ando, T. Ito, Naritaka Kitamura, Kazuhiko Nakata, Shozo Tsuruta, Tatsushi Kawai, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract: There is little information concerning the physical properties of various commercialized water-based temporary filling materials. In this study, the setting characteristics of 5 water-based temporary filling cements, i.e., Caviton, HY-seal, Lumicon, Cavit-G, and Cavit-W, were examined. Reinforced plastic pipes were filled with the test materials, and the specimens were then immersed in distilled water at 37°C. Setting time of each specimen was determined by a penetration test using a Vicat penetrometer; and setting layer depth was measured with micrometer calipers. Cavit-W exhibited the fastest setting time, whereas Caviton and HY-seal demonstrated the slowest setting time. These results indicate that the setting properties of these materials used in this study were significantly different for each material, which showed some changes on the surface and the internal part after the start of water absorption.
Authors: Ayami Nakamura, Harumasa Wanibe, Akihiro Iwama, Naritaka Kitamura, Naoki Shibata, Kazuhiko Nakata, Shozo Tsuruta, Tatsushi Kawai, Hiroshi Nakamura
Abstract: Titanium oxide (TiO2) has lately attracted considerable attention as a new material in dentistry because of its catalytic activity and biocompatibility. In the present study, we developed a novel root canal sealer consisting of TiO2 and evaluated its mechanical properties in vitro. The newly developed root canal sealer containing TiO2 has satisfied the requirement of ISO formulation 6876. Our results suggest that the newly developed root canal sealer has excellent physical characteristics, which may make it suitable for clinical use as a root canal sealer material.
Authors: Y. Herr, J.A. Woo, Y.H. Kwon, J.B. Park, S.J. Heo, J.H. Chung
Abstract: The increased surface roughness of dental implants has shown enhanced integration of bone tissues to implant surfaces, but may be predisposed to an increased risk of pathogenic bacterial infection and contamination with bacterial products. Tetracycline-HCl (Tc) treatment has been regarded as a practical and effective chemical modality for decontamination and detoxification of contaminated implant surfaces. The purpose of this study was to examine if Tc treatment alters the microstructures of the modified surface of dental implants. For this purpose, dental implants with pure titanium machined surface (MS), sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched surface (SLAS), or anodized surface (AS) were used. The surface of dental implants was rubbed for 30, 60, 90, 120, or 150 sec with sponge pellets soaked in Tc solution (50mg/ml) and in distilled water for 0 and 150 sec as the control group. The specimens were then routinely processed for scanning electron microscopy. The results show that Tc treatment did not change the surface of MS, SLAS, and AS.
Authors: Y. Herr, S.H. An, Y.H. Kwon, J.B. Park, J.H. Chung
Abstract: The purpose of treatment for peri-implantitis is to achieve structural and functional restoration of the lost supporting tissues around implants, including re-osseointegration. Both surgical and non-surgical approaches in combination with a variety of anti-microbial treatment regimens have been applied depending on the size and shape of the bone defect. Tetracycline-HCl (Tc) treatment has been considered as a effective chemical modality for decontamination and detoxification of contaminated implant surfaces. The aim of this study was to examine if Tc conditioning changes the microstructures of the modified surface of dental implants. Dental implants with (1) hydroxyapatite-coated surface (HAS) (Replace® select HA, Nobel Biocare AB, Göthenburg, Sweden), (2) TiO2-blasted surface (TBS) (Astra TiOblast®, ASTRA Tech AB, Mölndal, Sweden) were used in this study. Tc treatment noticeably altered the surface of HAS and TBS. HAS and TBS were partially removed from the implant surface as early as 90 and 60 sec, respectively.
Authors: Myung Hyun Lee, Han Shin Choi, K.S. Oh, Y.K. Kim, H.B. Yim, Deuk Yong Lee, Nam Sik Oh
Abstract: In Vitro Bond strength of base-coated (Y, Fe)-TZPs (yttria and iron co-doped tetragonal zirconia polycrystals) were investigated to evaluate the feasibility for the ceramic bracket applications. Pre-sintered (Y,Fe)-TZP brackets were machined, abraded and spray-coated with granule slurries containing 10~50 wt% of flux. Better adhesion to the base surface of the brackets was observed by raising the amount of flux in the slurries. It may be because of the fusion and the collapse of the granules as a result of the high amount of flux. The one-way analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences in bond strength measurements between the experimental groups except 30% and 50% flux content groups. The Weibull distribution revealed that 50% flux content group is the best with a high characteristic strength value. Mean ARI values exhibited large differences and ranged from 1.6 for 50% flux content group to 3.0 for non-coated group. Adhesive remnant of adhesive resin was decreased by increasing the flux up to 50%. Reduction in adhesive remnant is likely due to the higher bonding of adhesive resin to granules. No teeth and bracket damages were found in any teeth de-bonded by shear force. The base-coated brackets with higher strength (11.5 MPa) and no adhesive remnant were newly proposed for the orthodontics applications.
Authors: Y.W. Hong, J.H. Kim, B.H. Lee, Yong Keun Lee, B.J. Choi, Jae Hoon Lee, H.J. Choi
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the anticariogenic and remineralization effects of the glass ionomer dental luting cement containing nano-β-TCP in vitro. The β-Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) are the components of dental enamel and bone mineral as biological apatites. In addition, β-TCP contains a significant amount of calcium and phosphate, which can promote remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in animal and human. RelyXTM glass ionomer cement(3M/ESPE, USA) was used as dental luting cement. Film thickness, setting time, and compressive strength was measured for each group of pure glass GIC, 15% nano-β-TCP GIC. Human molars were prepared in box-shaped cavities that were filled with the GIC with and without the 15% nano-β-TCP were placed in 25ml of pH 5.0 acid buffer for 4 days at 37°C. After 4 days, longitudinal sections (1007m) were obtained through the center of each restoration. The sections were analyzed using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to identify the change in the enamel surface. A significant difference in the CLSM images between pure GIC and nano-β-TCP-GIC. CLSM allows the demineralized surface layers of sound enamel to be visualized down to approximately 100 μm. The pure GIC specimens had a relatively thick fluorescent layer. On the other hand, the fluorescent layer of the nano-β-TCP-GIC specimens were thinner. The SEM images of micro surfaces demonstrate that nano-β-TCP-GIC is less rough than pure GIC. Therefore, the addition of nano-β-TCP enhanced protection against acid demineralization and promoted remineralization of enamel surface.
Authors: K.K. Choi, S.M. Choi, Sang Jin Park, J.R. Kim
Authors: J.R. Kim, M.R. Jung, Sang Jin Park, K.K. Choi
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on microtensile bond strength(μTBS) to dentin both initial and after thermocycling with 3 different types of total-etching adhesives. Fifty four teeth were divided into 18 groups according to 3 etching times(5, 15, 25sec), 3 types of adhesives(Scotchbond Multipurpose(SM), Single Bond(SB), One-Step(OS)), and thermocycling(0, 2,000cycles). Following the bonding procedure, the specimens were bonded using Z250 composite. Half of them were not thermocycled (control group) and the others were subjected to 2,000 thermocycle (experimental group) and processed for microtensile bond strength testing. The microtensile bond strength(MPa) by different etching time(5, 15, 25s) was 37.7±9.1, 34.3±10.9 and 30.5±7.5 using Scotchbond Multipurpose(SM), 34.6±10.1, 33.8±7.6, 35.3±9.9 using single bond(SB) and 34.3±7.6, 31.3±8.5, 35.8±11.0 using one step(OS). After 2000 thermocycling the specimens, the microtensile bond strength(MPa) was decreased for all dentin bonding systems tested. But when specimens were bonded with OS, there is no significant difference between microtensile bond strength of the groups with the different etching times(5, 15, 25s) (28.2±7.8a , 29.1±8.6a and 28.2±9.4a). And the microtensile bond strength of the groups using SM, SB was decreased significantly when the etchant was applied for 25 sec(p<0.05). After all, the adhesive durability for dentin could be affected by type of solvents in adhesive and etching time. Especially, extended etching time may deteriorate dentin bond strength when ethanol-based adhesive was used
Authors: Leif Hermansson, Lars Kraft, Karin Lindqvist, Nils Otto Ahnfelt, Hakan Engqvist
Abstract: Flexural strength of a dental material reflects its ability to withstand tensile stresses and thus the fracture risk of a filling. The flexural strength of an experimental bioceramic Calcium aluminate-based (CA) dental restorative material was measured using three different methods with a composite (Tetric Ceram), a glass ionomer cement (Fuji II) and a phosphate cement (Harward) as references. The three test methods were: a) ISO 4049 for dental composites, 3-point bend test b) EN 843-1 for ceramic materials, 3-point bend test and c) ASTM F-394, biaxial ball-on-disc for ceramic materials. The strength of the CA-material, tested in the ball-on-disc method, is close to the theoretical strength based on the microstructure of the material (max. grain size of 15 μm). The composite material and the phosphate cement were rather insensitive to the test method, while the glass ionomer cement as the CA-material showed sensitivity towards the test method. A modified biaxial test method for evaluation of strength of dental materials in a close to real-life component is proposed.
Authors: M. Al-Jawad, L.M. Simmons, Axel Steuwer, S.H. Kilcoyne, R.C. Shore, R. Cywinski, David J. Wood
Abstract: We have used synchrotron x-ray diffraction to study the crystal orientation in human dental enamel as a function of position within intact tooth sections. Keeping tooth sections intact has allowed us to construct 2D and 3D spatial distribution maps of the magnitude and orientation of texture in dental enamel. We have found that the enamel crystallites are most highly aligned at the expected occlusal points for a maxillary first premolar, and that the texture direction varies spatially in a three dimensional curling arrangement. Our results provide a model for texture in enamel which can aid researchers in developing dental composite materials for fillings and crowns with optimal characteristics for longevity, and will guide clinicians to the best method for drilling into enamel, in order to minimize weakening of remaining tooth structure, during dental restoration procedures.

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