Bone is a kind of biomaterial in nature. It behaves favorable strength, stiffness and fracture toughness which are closely related to its fine microstructures. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation on a shinbone shows that the bone is a kind of natural bioceramic composite consisting of hydroxyapatite layers and collagen matrix. The hydroxyapatite layers are arranged in a parallel distribution and consist of many hydroxyapatite sheets. The fracture toughness of the bone was analyzed based on the representative model of the microstructure in the bone and the idea of maximum pullout energy. The analytical result shows that the long and thin shape as well as the parallel distribution of the hydroxyapatite sheets increase the maximum pullout energy of the sheets and enhance the fracture toughness of the bone.