The bioceramics nanostructured have made important characteristics in biomedical applications, especially the calcium phosphate ceramics. The aim of this work is synthesis and characterization of calcium phosphate and nanocomposites powders, the method of dissolution of CaO in liquid medium, precipitation and formation of bone calcium phosphate matrix, and nanocomposites by adding the solution of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The nanocomposites powders were synthesized using as strengthening silica gel nanometer (20nm) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3% and 5% by volume and subjected to heat treatment to 900°C for 2 hours, seeking obtained HA (Hydroxyapatite). Later the bone matrix of calcium phosphate and nanocomposites powders were subjected from process attrition milling for 2 hours, by way of comparison. The studies characterizations were conducted through the technique of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dilatometric test.