Nanomechanical Properties of Bioactive Ti Surfaces Obtained by NaOH-Based Anodic Oxidation and Alkali Treatment
Titanium has been used in the production of dental implants and orthopedic prostheses due to the low tendency to corrosion and good biocompatibility. Meanwhile, the surface of titanium is not bioactive. Several surface treatments have been developed to make the surface of such metals bioactive. The aim of this work was to evaluate two of these modification processes in commercially pure titanium grade 2, both of them using NaOH solutions: the anodic oxidation and the alkali treatment. The surface morphology was evaluated by SEM/EDS, the crystal structure by XRD, and the mechanical properties and scratch resistance by instrumented indentation. The anodic oxidation (AO) was carried out using NaOH electrolyte 0.1 mol/L and constant current density of 150 mA/cm² for one minute. The alkaline treatment (AT) was performed by soaking the Ti sample in NaOH 5 mol/L solution at 60 °C for 24 hours; after this, the sample was heat treated at 600 °C for one hour in atmospheric air. The AO produced a TiO2 layer on Ti, whereas a thin sodium titanate layer was obtained by AT. Each surface modification resulted in a specific morphology, but both of them presented the increase in roughness as a common characteristic. The alkali treated Ti surfaces showed the lowest elastic modulus and hardness values. The largest increase in hardness between the treated surfaces was obtained for Ti after anodic oxidation. Scratch test indicates that the TiO2 film from AO has higher strength to tangential loading than the Ti substrate. In addition, for the Ti submitted to AT, the scratch test indicates that the modified surface layer has a poor adhesion with the substrate. Based on these results it is possible to conclude that, using NaOH solutions, Ti surfaces treated by anodic oxidation present improved mechanical properties than the alkali-treated ones.
Eyup Sabri Kayali, Gultekin Goller and Ipek Akin
E. M. Szesz et al., "Nanomechanical Properties of Bioactive Ti Surfaces Obtained by NaOH-Based Anodic Oxidation and Alkali Treatment", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 493-494, pp. 524-529, 2012