Calcium Alkaline Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration 3D-Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing
Calcium alkaline phosphate granulates can be used for substitution of several bone defects but for the reconstruction of large skeletal parts in the maxillofacial and orthopaedic fields fitted scaffolds are preferable. Within the additive manufacturing methods, the 3D printing process offers exciting opportunities to generate defined porous scaffolds. We used a R1 printer from ProMetal Company, USA, for producing scaffolds directly from a ceramic powder. For this direct free form fabrication technology the powder has to possess a lot of specific properties both for the generation of a stable green body and also for the subsequent sintering preparation. For this printing process we prepared different granules in a fluidized bed process containing Ca2KNa(PO4)2 as main crystalline phase. Granules were characterized by different methods and several sieve fractions were used for preparing disc like and cylindrical parts. The suitability of granules for this printing process was determined by porosity and strength of produced bodies. Next to granules’ performance both of these properties can be directly influenced by 3D printing process parameters. With knowledge of suitable process parameters scaffolds with different porosity in a respective desired design can be created. In this study, cylindrical scaffolds with graded porosity were produced for bone regeneration of segmental defects in maxillofacial surgery and dental implantology by tissue engineering.
Eyup Sabri Kayali, Gultekin Goller and Ipek Akin
R. Gildenhaar et al., "Calcium Alkaline Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration 3D-Fabricated by Additive Manufacturing", Key Engineering Materials, Vols. 493-494, pp. 849-854, 2012